Publications 2001 - 2004
Journal of Glycomics & Lipidomics, 04 (02), | Read moreLipidomics Techniques and its Applications in Medical Research
Proteasome inhibitors are novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and other severe disorders. One of the possible side effects is influencing the metabolism of proteins. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of three proteasome inhibitors MG132, ZL(3)VS and AdaAhx(3)L(3)VS on protein metabolism and leucine oxidation in incubated skeletal muscle of control and septic rats. Total proteolysis was determined according to the rates of tyrosine release into the medium during incubation. The rates of protein synthesis and leucine oxidation were measured in a medium containing L-[1-(14)C]leucine. Protein synthesis was determined as the amount of L-[1-(14)C]leucine incorporated into proteins, and leucine oxidation was evaluated according to the release of (14)CO(2) during incubation. Sepsis was induced in rats by means of caecal ligation and puncture. MG132 reduced proteolysis by more than 50% and protein synthesis by 10-20% in the muscles of healthy rats. In septic rats, proteasome inhibitors, except ZL(3)VS, decreased proteolysis in both soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, although none of the inhibitors had any effect on protein synthesis. Leucine oxidation was increased by AdaAhx(3)L(3)VS in the septic EDL muscle and decreased by MG132 in intact EDL muscle. We conclude that MG132 and AdaAhx(3)L(3)VS reversed protein catabolism in septic rat muscles.
Turnover of cyclin E is controlled by SCF(Fbw7). Three isoforms of Fbw7 are produced by alternative splicing. Whereas Fbw7alpha and -gamma are nuclear and the beta-isoform is cytoplasmic in 293T cells, all three isoforms induce cyclin E destruction in an in vivo degradation assay. Cyclin E is phosphorylated on Thr(62), Ser(88), Ser(372), Thr(380), and Ser(384) in vivo. To examine the roles of phosphorylation in cyclin E turnover, a series of alanine point mutations in each of these sites were analyzed for Fbw7-driven degradation. As expected, mutation of the previously characterized residue Thr(380) to alanine led to profound defects of cyclin E turnover, and largely abolished association with Fbw7. Mutation of Thr(62) to alanine led to a dramatic reduction in the extent of Thr(380) phosphorylation, suggesting an indirect effect of this mutation on cyclin E turnover. Nevertheless, phosphopeptides centered at Thr(62) associated with Fbw7, and residual binding of cyclin E(T380A) to Fbw7 was abolished upon mutation of Thr(62), suggesting a minor role for this residue in direct association with Fbw7. Mutation of Ser(384) to alanine also rendered cyclin E resistant to degradation by Fbw7, with the largest effects being observed with Fbw7beta. Cyclin E(S384A) associated more weakly with Fbw7alpha and -beta isoforms but was not defective in Thr(380) phosphorylation. Analysis of the localization of cyclin E mutant proteins indicated selective accumulation of cyclin E(S384A) in the nucleus, which may contribute to the inability of cytoplasmic Fbw7beta to promote turnover of this cyclin E mutant protein.
Proteins associated with the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) viral particle were identified by a combined approach of proteomic and genomic methods. Purified MCMV virions were dissociated by complete denaturation and subjected to either separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion or treated directly by in-solution tryptic digestion. Peptides were separated by nanoflow liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The MS/MS spectra obtained were searched against a database of MCMV open reading frames (ORFs) predicted to be protein coding by an MCMV-specific version of the gene prediction algorithm GeneMarkS. We identified 38 proteins from the capsid, tegument, glycoprotein, replication, and immunomodulatory protein families, as well as 20 genes of unknown function. Observed irregularities in coding potential suggested possible sequence errors in the 3'-proximal ends of m20 and M31. These errors were experimentally confirmed by sequencing analysis. The MS data further indicated the presence of peptides derived from the unannotated ORFs ORF(c225441-226898) (m166.5) and ORF(105932-106072). Immunoblot experiments confirmed expression of m166.5 during viral infection.
Recent genome sequencing projects have identified new peptidases in multiple organisms, many with unknown functions, suggesting the need for new tools to study these enzymes. This unit outlines selection and use of small-molecule and protein-based probes to covalently modify peptidases in complex cellular environments. These activity-based probes (ABPs) have been designed based on well characterized peptidase inhibitor scaffolds, but make use of new techniques to greatly enhance their utility for studying families of related peptidases. In particular, ABPs can be used to track activity of peptidases in crude cell extracts, intact cells, and in vivo, allowing rapid purification and identification of labeled targets. They can be used with libraries of small molecules to rapidly assess potency and selectivity of compounds in complex, physiologically relevant samples. Probe selection, probe tagging using reporters, labeling of recombinant targets, crude protein extracts, and peptidase targets in cell culture systems, affinity purification of targets, and inhibitor screening using affinity probes are outlined.
A major cause of aging is thought to result from the cumulative effects of cell loss over time. In yeast, caloric restriction (CR) delays aging by activating the Sir2 deacetylase. Here we show that expression of mammalian Sir2 (SIRT1) is induced in CR rats as well as in human cells that are treated with serum from these animals. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) attenuated this response. SIRT1 deacetylates the DNA repair factor Ku70, causing it to sequester the proapoptotic factor Bax away from mitochondria, thereby inhibiting stress-induced apoptotic cell death. Thus, CR could extend life-span by inducing SIRT1 expression and promoting the long-term survival of irreplaceable cells.
Quantification studies of complex protein mixtures have been restricted mainly to whole cell extracts. Here we describe the synthesis of two sets of isotope-coded activity-based probes that allow quantitative functional proteomics experiments on the cathepsins.
Apoptosis is a key tumor suppression mechanism that can be initiated by activation of the proapoptotic factor Bax. The Ku70 DNA end-joining protein has recently been shown to suppress apoptosis by sequestering Bax from mitochondria. The mechanism by which Bax is regulated remains unknown. Here, we identify eight lysines in Ku70 that are targets for acetylation in vivo. Five of these, K539, K542, K544, K533, and K556, lie in the C-terminal linker domain of Ku70 adjacent to the Bax interaction domain. We show that CBP and PCAF efficiently acetylate K542 in vitro and associate with Ku70 in vivo. Mimicking acetylation of K539 or K542 or treating cells with deacetylase inhibitors abolishes the ability of Ku70 to suppress Bax-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate that increased acetylation of Ku70 disrupts the Ku70-Bax interaction and coincides with cytoplasmic accumulation of CBP. These results shed light on the role of acetyltransferases as tumor suppressors.
Determining the biological function of newly discovered gene products requires the development of novel functional approaches. To facilitate this task, recent developments in proteomics include small molecular probes that target proteolytic enzyme families including serine, threonine, and cysteine proteases. For the families of ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like (UBL)-specific proteases, such tools were lacking until recently. Here, we review the advances made in the development of protein-based active site-directed probes that target proteases specific for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins. Such probes were applied successfully to discover and characterize novel Ub/UBL-specific proteases. Ub/UBL processing and deconjugation are performed by a diverse set of proteases belonging to several different enzyme families, including members of the ovarian tumor domain (OTU) protease family. A further definition of this family of enzymes will benefit from a directed chemical proteomics approach. Some of the Ub/UBL-specific proteases react with multiple Ub/UBLs and members of the same protease family can recognize multiple Ub/UBLs, underscoring the need for tools that appropriately address enzyme specificity.
The family of ubiquitin (Ub)-specific proteases (USP) removes Ub from Ub conjugates and regulates a variety of cellular processes. The human genome contains many putative USP-encoding genes, but little is known about USP tissue distribution, pattern of expression, activity, and substrate specificity. We have used a chemistry-based functional proteomics approach to identify active USPs in normal, virus-infected, and tumor-derived human cells. Depending on tissue origin and stage of activation/differentiation, different USP activity profiles were revealed. The activity of specific USPs, including USP5, -7, -9, -13, -15, and -22, was up-regulated by mitogen activation or virus infection in normal T and B lymphocytes. UCH-L1 was highly expressed in tumor cell lines of epithelial and hematopoietic cell origin but was not detected in freshly isolated and mitogen-activated cells. Up-regulation of this USP was a late event in the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines and correlated with enhanced proliferation, suggesting a possible role in growth transformation.
The initiation of most cytotoxic immune responses requires MHC class I-restricted presentation of internalized antigens to CD8(+) T lymphocytes, a process called cross-presentation. In dendritic cells (DC), the only antigen-presenting cells that activate naive T cells, cross-presentation is particularly efficient after internalization of opsonized antigens or immune complexes, which are cross-presented through a proteasome- and transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. We now show that FcgammaR-mediated cross-presentation is tightly regulated during DC maturation. Cross-presentation increases soon after activation by lipopolysaccharides, and it is then inhibited in fully mature cells. The initial induction of cross-presentation results from an increase of both antigen internalization and delivery to the cytosol, and from a slight rise in the activity of the proteasome and TAP. The subsequent block of cross-presentation in mature DC is a consequence of the selective down-modulation of antigen internalization and cytosolic delivery, while proteasome and TAP activities continue to rise. Therefore, FcgammaR-mediated cross-presentation is regulated during DC maturation by the selective control of antigen internalization and transport to the cytosol.
Modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub)-like proteins (UBLs) plays an important role in many cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, nuclear transport, and autophagy. Protein modification occurs via UBL-conjugating and -deconjugating enzymes, which presumably exert a regulatory function by determining the conjugation status of the substrate proteins. To target and identify UBL-modifying enzymes, we produced Nedd8, ISG15, and SUMO-1 in Escherichia coli and equipped them with a C-terminal electrophilic trap (vinyl sulfone [VS]) via an intein-based method. These C-terminally modified UBL probes reacted with purified UBL-activating (E1), -conjugating (E2), and -deconjugating enzymes in a covalent fashion. Modified UBLs were radioiodinated and incubated with cell lysates prepared from mouse cell lines and tissues to allow visualization of polypeptides reactive with individual UBL probes. The cell type- and tissue-specific labeling patterns observed for the UBL probes reflect distinct expression profiles of active enzymes, indicating tissue-specific functions of UBLs. We identify Ub C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and DEN1/NEDP1/SENP8, in addition to UCH-L3, as proteases with specificity for Nedd8. The Ub-specific protease isopeptidase T/USP5 is shown to react with ISG15-VS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the desumoylation enzyme SuPr-1 can be modified by SUMO-1-VS, a modification that is dependent on the SuPr-1 active-site cysteine. The UBL probes described here will be valuable tools for the further characterization of the enzymatic pathways that govern modification by UBLs.
Apg8 is a ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagy in yeast. Apg8 is covalently but transiently attached to membrane lipids through the actions of activating, conjugating, and processing/deconjugating enzymes. The mammalian Apg8 homologues GATE-16, GARARAP, and MAP1-LC3 have been implicated in intra-Golgi transport, receptor sorting, and autophagy, respectively. All are served by a single set of activating and conjugating enzymes. Here we identify a novel mammalian Apg8 homologue, which we name Apg8L, and describe the synthesis of electrophilic probes based on the GATE-16, GARARAP, MAP1-LC3, and Apg8L proteins. These probes not only form specific adducts in crude cell lysates, but also allow identification of the cellular proteases specific for the C termini of these Apg8 homologues. We find a single protease, Apg4B/autophagin-1, capable of acting on GATE-16, GABARAP, MAP1-LC3, and Apg8L. The Apg4B/autophagin-1 protease thus serves as a processing/deconjugating enzyme for these four highly divergent mammalian Apg8 homologues.
The fruit fly genome is characterized by an evolutionary expansion of proteases and immunity-related genes. In order to characterize the proteases that are active in a phagocytic Drosophila model cell line (S2 cells), we have applied a functional proteomics approach that allows simultaneous detection and identification of multiple protease species. DCG-04, a biotinylated, mechanism-based probe that covalently targets mammalian cysteine proteases of the papain family was found to detect Drosophila polypeptides in an activity-dependent manner. Chemical tagging combined with tandem mass spectrometry permitted retrieval and identification of these polypeptides. Among them was thiol-ester motif-containing protein (TEP) 4 which is involved in insect innate immunity and shares structural and functional similarities with the mammalian complement system factor C3 and the pan-protease inhibitor alpha2-macroglobulin. We also found four cysteine proteases with homologies to lysosomal cathepsin (CTS) L, K, B, and F, which have been implicated in mammalian adaptive immunity. The Drosophila CTS equivalents were most active at a pH of 4.5. This suggests that Drosophila CTS are, similar to their mammalian counterparts, predominantly active in lysosomal compartments. In support of this concept, we found CTS activity in phagosomes of Drosophila S2 cells. These results underscore the utility of activity profiling to address the functional role of insect proteases in immunity.
In the prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic proteasome, HslUV, the "double donut" HslV protease is allosterically activated by HslU, an AAA protein of the Clp/Hsp100 family consisting of three (amino-terminal, carboxy-terminal, and intermediate) domains. The intermediate domains of HslU, which extend like tentacles from the hexameric ring formed by the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains, have been deleted; an asymmetric HslU(DeltaI)(6)HslV(12) complex has been crystallized; and the structure has been solved to 2.5A resolution, revealing an assembly in which a HslU(DeltaI) hexamer binds one end of the HslV dodecamer. The conformation of the protomers of the HslU(DeltaI)-complexed HslV hexamer is similar to that in the symmetric wild-type HslUV complex, while the protomer conformation of the uncomplexed HslV hexamer is similar to that of HslV alone. Reaction in the crystals with a vinyl sulfone inhibitor reveals that the HslU(DeltaI)-complexed HslV hexamer is active, while the uncomplexed HslV hexamer is inactive. These results confirm that HslV can be activated by binding of a hexameric HslU(DeltaI)(6) ring lacking the I domains, that activation is effected through a conformational change in HslV rather than through alteration of the size of the entry channel into the protease catalytic cavity, and that the two HslV(6) rings in the protease dodecamer are activated independently rather than cooperatively.
Degradation of cytosolic proteins depends largely on the proteasome, and a fraction of the cleavage products are presented as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-bound ligands at the cell surface of antigen presenting cells. Proteolytic pathways accessory to the proteasome contribute to protein turnover, and their up-regulation may complement the proteasome when proteasomal proteolysis is impaired. Here we show that reduced reliance on proteasomal proteolysis allowed a reduced efficiency of MHC class I ligand production, whereas protein turnover and cellular proliferation were maintained. Using the proteasomal inhibitor adamantane-acetyl-(6-aminohexanoyl)3-(leucinyl)3-vinyl-(methyl)-sulphone, we show that covalent inhibition of all three types of proteasomal beta-subunits (beta(1), beta(2), and beta(5)) was compatible with continued growth in cells that up-regulate accessory proteolytic pathways, which include cytosolic proteases as well as deubiquitinating enzymes. However, under these conditions, we observed poor assembly of H-2D(b) molecules and inhibited presentation of endogenous tumor antigens. Thus, the tight link between protein turnover and production of MHC class I ligands can be broken by enforcing the substitution of the proteasome with alternative proteolytic pathways.
In vivo targeting of the proteasome: Probe 1 is a cell-permeable irreversible inhibitor that alkylates the active-site residues of the proteasome in a Michael fashion. After cell lysis, a biotin moiety is introduced by Staudinger ligation to yield construct 2. This strategy allows activity profiling of the catalytic activities of the proteasome in vivo.
The ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system includes a large family of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). Many members are assigned to this enzyme class by sequence similarity but without evidence for biological activity. A panel of novel DUB-specific probes was generated by a chemical ligation method. These probes allowed identification of DUBs and associated components by tandem mass spectrometry, as well as rapid demonstration of enzymatic activity for gene products whose functions were inferred from primary structure. We identified 23 active DUBs in EL4 cells, including the tumor suppressor CYLD1. At least two DUBs tightly interact with the proteasome 19S regulatory complex. An OTU domain-containing protein, with no sequence homology to any known DUBs, was isolated. We show that this polypeptide reacts with the C terminus of Ub, thus demonstrating DUB-like enzymatic activity for this novel superfamily of proteases.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune responses rely on the efficiency of MHC class I ligand generation and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Whereas the abnormal expression of MHC molecules and transporters associated with antigen processing (TAPs) are commonly discussed as factors that modulate antigen presentation, much less is known about possible regulatory mechanisms at the level of proteolysis responsible for the generation of antigenic peptides. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is recognized as the major component responsible for this process in the cytosol and its activity can be regulated by cytokines, such as IFN-gamma. However, new evidence suggests the involvement of other proteases that can contribute to cytosolic proteolysis and therefore, to the quality and quantity of antigen production. Here, we review recent findings on an increasing number of proteolytic enzymes linked to antigen presentation, and we discuss how regulation of cytosolic protease activities might have implications for immune escape mechanisms that could be used by tumor cells and pathogens.
Cathepsins B and L are widely expressed cysteine proteases implicated in both intracellular proteolysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. However, specific roles remain to be validated in vivo. Here we show that combined deficiency of cathepsins B and L in mice is lethal during the second to fourth week of life. Cathepsin B(-/-)/L(-/-) mice reveal a degree of brain atrophy not previously seen in mice. This is because of massive apoptosis of select neurons in the cerebral cortex and the cerebellar Purkinje and granule cell layers. Neurodegeneration is accompanied by pronounced reactive astrocytosis and is preceded by an accumulation of ultrastructurally and biochemically unique lysosomal bodies in large cortical neurons and by axonal enlargements. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role for cathepsins B and L in maintenance of the central nervous system.
On the basis of the structure of a HslUV complex, a mechanism of allosteric activation of the HslV protease, wherein binding of the HslU chaperone propagates a conformational change to the active site cleft of the protease, has been proposed. Here, the 3.1 A X-ray crystallographic structure of Haemophilus influenzae HslUV complexed with a vinyl sulfone inhibitor is described. The inhibitor, which reacts to form a covalent linkage to Thr1 of HslV, binds in an "antiparallel beta" manner, with hydrogen-bond interactions between the peptide backbone of the protease and that of the inhibitor, and with two leucinyl side chains of the inhibitor binding in the S1 and S3 specificity pockets of the protease. Comparison of the structure of the HslUV-inhibitor complex with that of HslV without inhibitor and in the absence of HslU reveals that backbone interactions would correctly position a substrate for cleavage in the HslUV complex, but not in the HslV protease alone, corroborating the proposed mechanism of allosteric activation. This activation mechanism differs from that of the eukaryotic proteasome, for which binding of activators opens a gated channel that controls access of substrates to the protease, but does not perturb the active site environment.
A C-terminally modified ubiquitin (Ub) derivative, ubiquitin vinyl sulfone (UbVS), was synthesized as an active site-directed probe that irreversibly modifies a subset of Ub C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) and Ub-specific processing proteases (UBPs). Specificity of UbVS for deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) is demonstrated not only by inhibition of [(125)I]UbVS labeling with N-ethylmaleimide and Ub aldehyde, but also by genetic analysis. [(125)I]UbVS modifies six of the 17 known and putative yeast deubiquitylating enzymes (Yuh1p, Ubp1p, Ubp2p, Ubp6p, Ubp12p and Ubp15p), as revealed by analysis of corresponding mutant strains. In mammalian cells, greater numbers of polypeptides are labeled, most of which are likely to be DUBs. Using [(125)I]UbVS as a probe, we report the association of an additional DUB with the mammalian 26S proteasome. In addition to the 37 kDa enzyme reported to be part of the 19S cap, we identified USP14, a mammalian homolog of yeast Ubp6p, as being bound to the proteasome. Remarkably, labeling of 26S-associated USP14 with [(125)I]UbVS is increased when proteasome function is impaired, suggesting functional coupling between the activities of USP14 and the proteasome.
BACKGROUND: The 26S proteasome is responsible for most cytosolic proteolysis, and is an important protease in major histocompatibility complex class I-mediated antigen presentation. Constitutively expressed proteasomes from mammalian sources possess three distinct catalytically active species, beta1, beta2 and beta5, which are replaced in the gamma-interferon-inducible immunoproteasome by a different set of catalytic subunits, beta1i, beta2i and beta5i, respectively. Based on preferred cleavage of short fluorogenic peptide substrates, activities of the proteasome have been assigned to individual subunits and classified as 'chymotryptic-like' (beta5), 'tryptic-like' (beta2) and 'peptidyl-glutamyl peptide hydrolyzing' (beta1). Studies with protein substrates indicate a far more complicated, less strict cleavage preference. We reasoned that inhibitors of extended size would give insight into the extent of overlapping substrate specificity of the individual activities and subunits. RESULTS: A new class of proteasome inhibitors, considerably extended in comparison with the commonly used fluorescent substrates and peptide-based inhibitors, has been prepared. Application of the safety catch resin allowed the generation of the target compounds using a solid phase protocol. Evaluation of the new compounds revealed a set of highly potent proteasome inhibitors that target all individual active subunits with comparable affinity, unlike the other inhibitors described to date. Modification of the most active compound, adamantane-acetyl-(6-aminohexanoyl)(3)-(leucinyl)(3)-vinyl-(methyl)-sulfone (AdaAhx(3)L(3)VS), itself capable of proteasome inhibition in living cells, afforded a new set of radio- and affinity labels. CONCLUSIONS: N-terminal extension of peptide vinyl sulfones has a profound influence on both their efficiency and selectivity as proteasome inhibitors. Such extensions greatly enhance inhibition and largely obliterate selectivity towards the individual catalytic activities. We conclude that for the interaction with larger substrates, there appears to be less discrimination of different substrate sequences for the catalytic activities than is normally assumed based on the use of small peptide-based substrates and inhibitors. The compounds described here are readily accessible synthetically, and are more potent inhibitors in living cells than their shorter peptide vinyl sulfone counterparts.
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