Publications 2005 - 2008
Attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) or ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates the fate and function of proteins. In particular, proteolytic enzymes with Ub/Ubl processing activity appear to be more widespread than originally anticipated. It is therefore not surprising that bacterial and viral pathogens have exploited many ways to interfere with Ub/Ubl conjugation, but also de-conjugation. On one hand, pathogens were shown to manipulate host encoded enzymes. On the other hand, pathogen derived sequences of proteases specific for Ub/Ubls are emerging as a common feature shared by many viruses, bacteria and protozoa, and we are at an early stage of understanding how these proteases contribute to the pathogenesis of infection. Whereas some of these proteases share a common origin with mammalian cell encoded hydrolases with specific properties towards Ub/Ubls, most of them have ancient intrinsic functions, such as processing pathogen protein components, and may have acquired the specificity for Ub/Ubls by interacting with mammalian hosts and their immune system throughout evolution. Since many of these proteases are clearly distinct from their mammalian counterparts, they represent attractive targets for drug design against infectious diseases.
Activation of the p53 tumour suppressor protein in response to DNA damage leads to apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. Enzymatic modifications are widely believed to affect and regulate p53 activity. We describe here a level of post-translational control that has an important functional consequence on the p53 response. We show that the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 5, as a co-factor in a DNA damage responsive co-activator complex that interacts with p53, is responsible for methylating p53. Arginine methylation is regulated during the p53 response and affects the target gene specificity of p53. Furthermore, PRMT5 depletion triggers p53-dependent apoptosis. Thus, methylation on arginine residues is an underlying mechanism of control during the p53 response.
The p53 cofactor Strap (stress responsive activator of p300) is directly targeted by the DNA damage signalling pathway where phosphorylation by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase facilitates nuclear accumulation. Here, we show that Strap regulation reflects the coordinated interplay between different DNA damage-activated protein kinases, ATM and Chk2 (Checkpoint kinase 2), where phosphorylation by each kinase provides a distinct functional consequence on the activity of Strap. ATM phosphorylation prompts nuclear accumulation, which we show occurs by impeding nuclear export, whereas Chk2 phosphorylation augments protein stability once Strap has attained a nuclear location. These results highlight the various functional roles undertaken by the DNA damage signalling kinases in Strap control and, more generally, shed light on the pathways that contribute to the regulation of the p53 response.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is implicated in tumor metastasis as well as a variety of inflammatory and pathological processes. Although many substrates for MMP-9, including components of the extracellular matrix, soluble mediators such as chemokines, and cell surface molecules have been identified, we undertook a more comprehensive proteomics-based approach to identify new substrates to further understand how MMP-9 might contribute to tumor metastasis. Previous proteomics approaches to identify protease substrates have depended upon differential labeling of each sample. Instead we used a label-free quantitative proteomics approach based on ultraperformance LC-ESI-high/low collision energy MS. Conditioned medium from a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC-3ML, in which MMP-9 had been down-regulated by RNA interference was compared with that from the parental cells. From more than 200 proteins identified, 69 showed significant alteration in levels after depletion of the protease (>+/-2-fold), suggesting that they might be candidate substrates. Levels of six of these (amyloid-beta precursor protein, collagen VI, leukemia inhibitory factor, neuropilin-1, prostate cancer cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF), and protease nexin-1 (PN-1)) were tested in the conditioned media by immunoblotting. There was a strong correlation between results by ultraperformance LC-ESI-high/low collision energy MS and by immunoblotting giving credence to the label-free approach. Further information about MMP-9 cleavage was obtained by comparison of the peptide coverage of collagen VI in the presence and absence of MMP-9 showing increased sensitivity of the C- and N-terminal globular regions over the helical regions. Susceptibility of PN-1 and leukemia inhibitory factor to MMP-9 degradation was confirmed by in vitro incubation of the recombinant proteins with recombinant MMP-9. The MMP-9 cleavage sites in PN-1 were sequenced. This study provides a new label-free method for degradomics cell-based screening leading to the identification of a series of proteins whose levels are affected by MMP-9, some of which are clearly direct substrates for MMP-9 and become candidates for involvement in metastasis.
CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RHEUMATOLOGY, 26 (4), pp. 727-727.2008. Antigen Spondylitis monocytes show upregulation of proteins involved in antigen presentation
(Chemical Equation Presented) Enzyme in action: Labeling studies and the finding that carboxymethylproline synthase catalyzes production of deuterated (2S,5S)-6,6′-dimethyl-trans-carboxymethylproline (3) from dimethylmalonyl-CoA (1) and labeled l-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (2) limit possible mechanisms of C-C bond formation and thioester hydrolysis. A key feature in the catalysis is that intermediates are stabilized by hydrogen bonds in the "oxy-anion hole" of the enzyme (dark curve in scheme). © 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
BACKGROUND: Src family kinases (SFK) are implicated in the development of some colorectal cancers (CRC). One SFK member, Lck, is not detectable in normal colonic epithelium, but becomes aberrantly expressed in a subset of CRCs. Although SFK have been extensively studied in fibroblasts and different types of immune cells, their physical and functional targets in many epithelial cancers remain poorly characterised. RESULTS: 64 CRC cell lines were tested for expression of Lck. SW620 CRC cells, which express high levels of Lck and also contain high basal levels of tyrosine phosphorylated (pY) proteins, were then analysed to identify novel SFK targets. Since SH2 domains of SFK are known to often bind substrates after phosphorylation by the kinase domain, the LckSH2 was compared with 14 other SH2s for suitability as affinity chromatography reagent. Mass spectrometric analyses of LckSH2-purified pY proteins subsequently identified several proteins readily known as SFK kinase substrates, including cortactin, Tom1L1 (SRCASM), GIT1, vimentin and AFAP1L2 (XB130). Additional proteins previously reported as substrates of other tyrosine kinase were also detected, including the EGF and PDGF receptor target Odin. Odin was further analysed and found to contain substantially less pY upon inhibition of SFK activity in SW620 cells, indicating that it is a formerly unknown SFK target in CRC cells. CONCLUSION: Rapid identification of known and novel SFK targets in CRC cells is feasible with SH2 domain affinity chromatography. The elucidation of new SFK targets like Odin in epithelial cancer cells is expected to lead to novel insight into cancer cell signalling mechanisms and may also serve to indicate new biomarkers for monitoring tumor cell responses to drug treatments.
The ubiquitin-proteasome system has emerged as essential sets of reactions involved in many biological processes in addition to the disposal of misfolded and damaged proteins. Studies in different research areas reveal its role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, signaling, and protein targeting. Small molecule inhibitors against the proteasome have been useful in determining the specific role of this enzyme in these processes. Here we review recent progress made in the development and application of molecules that target proteasomal proteolysis. In addition, an increasing number of other enzymes in this pathway, in particular deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and N-glycanases, appear to be attractive alternative targets for developing inhibitors that can be used to interfere with biological processes linked to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. © 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Modification of proteins by ubiquitin plays a major role in a broad array of biological processes. Reversal of this process through deubiquitylation likely represents an important regulatory step in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, the biological functions of deubiquitylating enzymes still remain poorly characterized. To investigate the biological role of the herpes virus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease HAUSP/USP7, we have generated stably transfected cells carrying inducible shRNA expression plasmids. USP7 mRNA and protein were strongly down-regulated 48-72 h after shRNA induction. We used a selected clone to compare whole-cell proteomes by 2D-SDS-PAGE before and after knockdown of USP7. Alterations in 36 proteins were detected and their identities were revealed by mass spectrometry analysis. Components of the replication machinery, DNA/RNA binding proteins, enzymes involved in apoptosis and metabolism were found to be down-regulated upon USP7 removal, representing proteins that are either more rapidly turned over or synthesized less efficiently in the absence of USP7-mediated deubiquitylation. Alix/HP95, a protein implicated in endosomal organization and virus budding, was confirmed by immunoblotting to become down-regulated when USP7 levels were reduced. Our results extend the current list of USP7-dependent biological processes and suggest a role for this enzyme not only in transcriptional regulation but also in DNA replication, apoptosis, and possibly endosomal organization.
Proteins bearing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leader are inserted into the ER followed by cleavage of the signal peptide. Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T-cell epitopes can be generated from these proteins by the proteasome after retrotranslocation into the cytosol. Here, we show that an HLA-A(*)0201-restricted epitope from prostate stem cell antigen contains the cleavage site of the ER signal peptidase. The resulting cleavage products fail to bind to HLA-A(*)0201 and are not recognized by T lymphocytes. As processing of prostate stem cell antigen by signal peptidase occurs immediately after co-translational insertion, the epitope must be processed from polypeptides that have never reached the ER. The processing of this epitope depends on the proteasome and the transporter associated with antigen processing and shows a novel pathway of class I processing that relies on the failure of ER-targeted proteins to reach their target compartment.
The stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) are regulated by the post-translational hydroxylation of specific prolyl and asparaginyl residues. We show that the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), also catalyzes hydroxylation of highly conserved asparaginyl residues within ankyrin repeat (AR) domains (ARDs) of endogenous Notch receptors. AR hydroxylation decreases the extent of ARD binding to FIH while not affecting signaling through the canonical Notch pathway. ARD proteins were found to efficiently compete with HIF for FIH-dependent hydroxylation. Crystallographic analyses of the hydroxylated Notch ARD (2.35A) and of Notch peptides bound to FIH (2.4-2.6A) reveal the stereochemistry of hydroxylation on the AR and imply that significant conformational changes are required in the ARD fold in order to enable hydroxylation at the FIH active site. We propose that ARD proteins function as natural inhibitors of FIH and that the hydroxylation status of these proteins provides another oxygen-dependent interface that modulates HIF signaling.
Loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) is a major contributor to disability in old age. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to screen for changes in proteins, and cDNA profiling to assess transcriptional regulations in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult (4 months) and aged (30 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five proteins were differentially expressed in aged muscle. Proteins and mRNA transcripts involved in redox homeostasis and iron load were increased, representing novel components that were previously not associated with sarcopenia. Tissue iron levels were elevated in senescence, paralleling an increase in transferrin. Proteins involved in redox homeostasis showed a complex pattern of changes with increased SOD1 and decreased SOD2. These results suggest that an elevated iron load is a significant component of sarcopenia with the potential to be exploited clinically, and that mitochondria of aged striated muscle may be more vulnerable to radicals produced in cell respiration.
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degrades the majority of proteins in mammalian cells and plays an essential role in the generation of antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility class I molecules. Proteasome inhibitors are of great interest as research tools and drug candidates. Most work on proteasome inhibitors has focused on the inhibition of the chymotryptic-like (beta5) sites; little attention has been paid to the inhibition of two other types of active sites, the trypsin-like (beta2) and the caspase-like (beta1). We report here the development of the first cell-permeable and highly selective inhibitors (4 and 5) of the proteasome's caspase-like site. The selectivity of the compounds is directly and unambiguously established by Staudinger-Bertozzi labeling of proteasome subunits covalently modified with azide-functionalized inhibitor 5. This labeling reveals that the caspase-like site of the immunoproteasome (beta1i) is a preferred target of this compound. These compounds can be used as tools to study roles of beta1 and beta1i sites in generation of specific antigenic peptides and their potential role as co-targets of anti-cancer drugs.
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), can sequester human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virions in multivesicular bodies. Here, using large-scale gene expression profiling and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteome analyses, we characterized signaling mediated by DC-SIGN after activation by either HIV or a DC-SIGN-specific antibody. Activation of DC-SIGN resulted in downregulation of genes encoding major histocompatibility complex class II, Jagged 1 and interferon-response molecules and upregulation of the gene encoding transcription factor ATF3. Phosphorylated proteome analysis showed that HIV- or antibody-stimulated DC-SIGN signaling was mediated by the Rho guanine nucleotide-exchange factor LARG and led to increased Rho-GTPase activity. Activation of LARG in DCs exposed to HIV was required for the formation of virus-T cell synapses. Thus, HIV sequestration by and stimulation of DC-SIGN helps HIV evade immune responses and spread to cells.
The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) targets hydroxylated alpha-subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal destruction through direct interaction with the hydroxyproline binding pocket in its beta-domain. Although disruption of this process may contribute to VHL-associated tumor predisposition by up-regulation of HIF target genes, genetic and biochemical analyses support the existence of additional functions, including a role in the assembly of extracellular matrix. In an attempt to delineate these pathways, we searched for novel pVHL-binding proteins. Here we report a direct, hydroxylation-dependent interaction with alpha-chains of collagen IV. Interaction with pVHL was also observed with fibrillar collagen chains, but not the folded collagen triple helix. The interaction was suppressed by a wide range of tumor-associated mutations, including those that do not disturb the regulation of HIF, supporting a role in HIF-independent tumor suppressor functions.
SWISS MEDICAL WEEKLY, 137 pp. 21S-21S.2007. A prostate carcinoma antigen reveals a new cytosolic class I processing pathway for endoplasmic reticulum targeted proteins
Both humans and mice with a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (aire) gene develop multiorgan autoimmune disease. Aire was shown to exert its critical function in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus by promoting ectopic expression of peripheral tissue antigens. It was hypothesized that the widespread autoimmunity of Aire-deficient individuals reflects a lack of tolerance induction to the repertoire of peripheral tissue antigens expressed in the thymus of normal individuals. Here, we substantiate this hypothesis by identifying Mucin 6 as a stomach-specific antigen targeted by autoantibodies in gastritis-prone mice lacking thymic expression of aire and demonstrate that transcription of the Mucin 6 gene in thymic medullary epithelial cells is indeed Aire-dependent.
BACKGROUND: While modulation of T cell function is believed to be important in the successful acquisition of clinical tolerance during venom immunotherapy, little is known of the role of wasp venom specific T cell antigens. OBJECTIVE: We sought comprehensively to characterize the T cell proteome for wasp venom to facilitate the future development of T cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches. METHODS: Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from wasp venom-allergic individuals and IL-4 ELISPOT analysis, we characterized T cell responses to whole venom and gel filtration/ion exchange-fractionated venom. Reactive fractions were purified and identified using highly sensitive electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Wasp venom-allergic individuals have detectable whole wasp venom-specific T cells directly ex vivo, which show rapid IL-4 effector function. T cell responses to gel filtration/ion exchange fractionated venom were dominated by responses to phospholipase A(1), hyaluronidase and antigen 5. CONCLUSION: Although it is likely that there are many T cell antigens within wasp venom, the main responses are to proteins coincident with the known IgE-binding proteins.
Reperfusion of ischemic tissues elicits an acute inflammatory response involving serum complement, which is activated by circulating natural IgM specific to self-Ags exposed by ischemia. Recent reports demonstrating a role for the lectin pathway raise a question regarding the initial events in complement activation. To dissect the individual roles of natural IgM and lectin in activation of complement, mice bearing genetic deficiency in early complement, IgM, or mannan-binding lectin were characterized in a mesenteric model of ischemia reperfusion injury. The results reveal that IgM binds initially to ischemic Ag providing a binding site for mannan-binding lectin which subsequently leads to activation of complement and injury.
The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has shown impressive clinical activity alone and in combination with conventional and other novel agents for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Although bortezomib is known to be a selective proteasome inhibitor, the downstream mechanisms of cytotoxicity and drug resistance are poorly understood. However, resistance to bortezomib as a single agent develops in the majority of patients, and activity in other malignancies has been less impressive. To elucidate mechanisms of bortezomib resistance, we compared differential gene expression profiles of bortezomib-resistant SUDHL-4 and bortezomib-sensitive SUDHL-6 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma lines in response to bortezomib. At concentrations that effectively inhibited proteasome activity, bortezomib induced apoptosis in SUDHL-6 cells, but not in SUDHL-4 cells. We showed that overexpression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), ATF4, ATF5, c-Jun, JunD and caspase-3 is associated with sensitivity to bortezomib-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of heat shock protein (HSP)27, HSP70, HSP90 and T-cell factor 4 is associated with bortezomib resistance.
Modification of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers (Ubls) plays a fundamental role in cell biology. As a consequence, proteomics-based efforts were developed to characterize proteins that are modified by Ub or Ubls. A more focused functional proteomics strategy relies on active-site probes based on the Ub/Ubl scaffold, which specifically targets Ub/Ubl-processing enzymes. Activity-based profiling with such tools led to the identification of novel gene products with Ub/Ubl-processing activity and uncovered novel control mechanisms regulating their activity. This review discusses recent advances in chemistry-based functional proteomics applications, and how this information can provide a framework for drug development against Ub/Ubl-processing enzymes.
Reperfusion injury (RI), a potential life-threatening disorder, represents an acute inflammatory response after periods of ischemia resulting from myocardial infarction, stroke, surgery, or trauma. The recent identification of a monoclonal natural IgM that initiates RI led to the identification of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain type II A and C as the self-targets in two different tissues. These results identify a novel pathway in which the innate response to a highly conserved self-antigen expressed as a result of hypoxic stress results in tissue destruction.
Liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) has been used successfully for the characterization of biomolecules in proteomics in the last few years. This methodology relied largely on the use of reversed-phase chromatography, in particular C18-based resins, which are suitable for separation of peptides. Here we show that polymeric [polystyrene divinylbenzene] monolithic columns can be used to separate peptide mixtures faster and at a higher resolution. For 500 fmol bovine serum albumin, up to 68% sequence coverage and Mascot Mowse scores of >2000 were obtained using a 9 min gradient on a monolithic column coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with ultra-fast MS/MS scan rates. In order to achieve similar results using C18 columns, it was necessary to extend gradient times to 30 min. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of this approach for the analysis of whole Escherichia coli cell lysates by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-SDS-PAGE) in combination with LC/MS/MS using 4 min gradients on monolithic columns. Our results indicate higher throughput capabilities of monolithic columns (3-fold gain in time or more) for conventional proteomics applications, such as protein identification and high sequence coverage usually required for detection of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Further optimization of sensitivity and quality of sequence information is discussed, in particular when combined with mass spectrometers that have very fast MS-MS/MS switching and scanning capabilities.
Cell Death Differ, 13 (1), pp. 163-165. | Citations: 29 (Web of Science Lite) | Read more2006. z-VAD-fmk inhibits peptide:N-glycanase and may result in ER stress.
IMMUNOLOGY, 116 pp. 72-72.2005. A proteomic approach to the identification of marker proteins for ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis
Multiple myeloma is a B-cell malignancy for which no curative therapies exist to date, despite enormous research efforts. The remarkable activity of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS-341, Velcade) observed in clinical trials of patients with relapsed refractory myeloma has led to investigations of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the pathogenesis of myeloma. Here we report a biochemical analysis of proteasome activity and composition in myeloma cells exposed to PS-341 in the presence or absence of cytokines present in the bone marrow milieu. We observed that the myeloma cell lines MM1.S, RPMI8226, and U266 contain active immunoproteasomes, the amount of which is enhanced by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a radiolabeled active site-directed probe specific for proteasome catalytic subunits, we show that PS-341 targets the beta5 and beta1 subunits in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, PS-341 also targeted the corresponding catalytic subunits of the immunoproteasome, beta5i and beta1i, respectively. These data suggest that PS-341 targets both normal and immunoproteasome species to a similar extent in myeloma cells.
We have discovered a ubiquitin (Ub)-specific cysteine protease encoded within the N-terminal approximately 500 residues of the UL36 gene product, the largest (3164 aa) tegument protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Enzymatic activity of this fragment, UL36USP, is detectable only after cleavage of UL36USP from full-length UL36 and occurs late during viral replication. UL36USP bears no homology to known deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) or Ub binding proteins. Sequence alignment of the large tegument proteins across the family Herpesviridae indicates conservation of key catalytic residues amongst these viruses. Recombinant UL36USP exhibits hydrolytic activity toward Ub-AMC and ubiquitinated branched peptides in vitro. In addition, recombinant UL36USP can cleave polyUb chains and appears to be specific for Lys48 linkages. Mutation of the active site cysteine residue (Cys65) to alanine abolishes this enzymatic activity. The lack of homology between UL36USP and eukaryotic DUBs makes this new family of herpesvirus ubiquitin-specific proteases attractive targets for selective inhibition.
European Journal of Immunology, 35 (8), pp. 2508.2005. Erratum: Immunodominance of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes co-injected in vivo and modulation by interleukin-12 (European Journal of Immunology (2005) vol. 26 (11) (2709-2716))
A panel of CD4 T-cell clones was isolated from synovial fluid by single cell flow cytometry from a patient with treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis using a DRB1*0401 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramer covalently loaded with outer surface protein A (OspA) peptide164-175, an immunodominant epitope of Borrelia burgdorferi. Sequencing of the T-cell receptors of the OspA reactive clones showed significant skewing of the T-cell receptor repertoire. Of the 101 T-cell clones sequenced, 81 possessed TCR beta chains that were present in at least one other clone isolated. Complete sequencing of both alpha and beta chains of a subset of clones showed that at least two distinct T-cell clones were expanded in vivo. Binding studies using a panel of Ala-substituted peptide ligands were performed to determine potential MHC binding sites of the OspAp164-175 to DRB1*0401. In addition, T-cell clones were tested functionally for their reactivity to the wild-type peptide as well as to altered peptide ligands (APLs) and peptide libraries based on the OspA epitope in order to determine the TCR contact residues and the stringency in T cell recognition. We are among the first to define the characteristics of TCR usage of T cells isolated from an inflamed immune compartment in an individual with an autoimmune disease potentially triggered by a microbial antigen.
Proteasome inhibitors, such as the dipeptide boronic acid bortezomib, are emerging as important tools in the treatment of the fatal hematologic malignancy multiple myeloma. Despite the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of bortezomib (PS341, Velcade) for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma, many of the basic pharmacologic parameters of bortezomib and its mode of action on myeloma cells remain to be determined. We describe the synthesis and use of a cell-permeant active site-directed probe, which allows profiling of proteasomal activities in living cells. When we compared proteasome activity patterns in cultured cells and crude cell extracts with this probe, we observed substantial differences, stressing the importance for bioassays compatible with live cells to ensure accuracy of such measurements. Using this probe, we investigated the in vivo subunit specificities of bortezomib and another inhibitor, MG132.
There's always a catch. The post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) or ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifiers is an important signal in the regulation of a variety of biological processes, such as degradation and regulation of gene expression. Here we report the synthesis of a panel of peptide vinyl sulfones (see scheme) harboring various portions of the Ub C terminus by using a safety-catch linker. Depending on their length, such compounds can efficiently target Ubl-specific proteases. © 2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are synthesized by many bacteria as intracellular storage material. The final step in PHA biosynthesis is catalyzed by two PHA polymerases (phaC) in Pseudomonas putida. The expression of these two phaC genes (phaC1 and phaC2)was studied in Escherichia coli, either under control of the native promoter or under control of an external promoter. It was found that the two phaC genes are not expressed in E. coli without an external promoter. During heterologous expression of phaC from Plac on a high copy number plasmid, a rapid reduction of the number of colony forming units was observed, especially for phaC2. It appears that the plasmid instability was partially caused by high-level production of PHA polymerase. Subsequently, tightly regulated phaC2 expression systems on a low copy number vector were applied in E. coli. This resulted in PHA yields of over 20 of total cell dry weight, which was 2 fold higher than that obtained from the system where phaC2 is present on a high copy number vector. In addition, the PHA monomer composition differed when different gene expression systems or different phaC genes were applied.
The chemical labeling of biomolecules continues to be an important tool for the study of their function and cellular fate. Attention is increasingly focused on labeling of biomolecules in living cells, since cell lysis introduces many artefacts. In addition, with the advances in biocompatible synthetic organic chemistry, a whole new field of opportunity has opened up, affording high diversity in the nature of the label as well as a choice of ligation reactions. In recent years, several different two-step labeling strategies have emerged. These rely on the introduction of a bioorthogonal attachment site into a biomolecule, then ligation of a reporter molecule to this site using bioorthogonal organic chemistry. This Perspective focuses on these techniques, their implications and future directions.
Total publications on this page: 33
Total citations for publications on this page: 2042