Chronic immune activation is thought to play a major role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis, but the relative contributions of multiple factors to immune activation are not known. One proposed mechanism to protect against immune activation is the ability of Nef proteins from some HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus strains to downregulate the T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex of the infected cell, thereby reducing the potential for deleterious activation. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Nef has lost this property. In contrast to HIV-1, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a marked disparity in the disease course, with most individuals maintaining a normal life span. In this study, we examined the relationship between the ability of HIV-2 Nef proteins to downregulate the TCR and immune activation, comparing progressors and nonprogressors. Representative Nef variants were isolated from 28 HIV-2-infected individuals. We assessed their abilities to downregulate the TCR from the surfaces of CD4 T cells. In the same individuals, the activation of peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated by measurement of the expression levels of HLA-DR and CD38. We observed a striking correlation of the TCR downregulation efficiency of HIV-2 Nef variants with immune activation in individuals with a low viral load. This strongly suggests that Nef expression can influence the activation state of the immune systems of infected individuals. However, the efficiency of TCR downregulation by Nef was not reduced in progressing individuals, showing that TCR downregulation does not protect against progression in HIV-2 infection.
The protein kinase haspin/Gsg2 plays an important role in mitosis, where it specifically phosphorylates Thr-3 in histone H3 (H3T3). Its protein sequence is only weakly homologous to other protein kinases and lacks the highly conserved motifs normally required for kinase activity. Here we report structures of human haspin in complex with ATP and the inhibitor iodotubercidin. These structures reveal a constitutively active kinase conformation, stabilized by haspin-specific inserts. Haspin also has a highly atypical activation segment well adapted for specific recognition of the basic histone tail. Despite the lack of a DFG motif, ATP binding to haspin is similar to that in classical kinases; however, the ATP gamma-phosphate forms hydrogen bonds with the conserved catalytic loop residues Asp-649 and His-651, and a His651Ala haspin mutant is inactive, suggesting a direct role for the catalytic loop in ATP recognition. Enzyme kinetic data show that haspin phosphorylates substrate peptides through a rapid equilibrium random mechanism. A detailed analysis of histone modifications in the neighborhood of H3T3 reveals that increasing methylation at Lys-4 (H3K4) strongly decreases substrate recognition, suggesting a key role of H3K4 methylation in the regulation of haspin activity.
The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed that the presence of the SH2 domain is frequently required for catalytic activity, suggesting a crucial function stabilizing the active state of many nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, the structure of the SH2-kinase domain of Fes revealed that the SH2 domain stabilizes the active kinase conformation by direct interactions with the regulatory helix alphaC. Stabilizing interactions between the SH2 and the kinase domains have also been observed in the structures of active Csk and Abl. Interestingly, mutations in the SH2 domain found in human disease can be explained by SH2 domain destabilization or incorrect positioning of the SH2. Here we summarize our understanding of mechanisms that lead to tyrosine kinase activation by direct interactions mediated by the SH2 domain and discuss how mutations in the SH2 domain trigger kinase inactivation.
p73 and p63, the two ancestral members of the p53 family, are involved in neurogenesis, epithelial stem cell maintenance and quality control of female germ cells. The highly conserved oligomerization domain (OD) of tumor suppressor p53 is essential for its biological functions, and its structure was believed to be the prototype for all three proteins. However, we report that the ODs of p73 and p63 differ from the OD of p53 by containing an additional alpha-helix that is not present in the structure of the p53 OD. Deletion of this helix causes a dissociation of the OD into dimers; it also causes conformational instability and reduces the transcriptional activity of p73. Moreover, we show that ODs of p73 and p63 strongly interact and that a large number of different heterotetramers are supported by the additional helix. Detailed analysis shows that the heterotetramer consisting of two homodimers is thermodynamically more stable than the two homotetramers. No heterooligomerization between p53 and the p73/p63 subfamily was observed, supporting the notion of functional orthogonality within the p53 family.
The spread of dengue virus throughout the tropics represents a major, rapidly growing public health problem with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of dengue fever and the life-threatening disease, severe dengue. A safe and effective vaccine for dengue is urgently needed. The pathogenesis of severe dengue results from a complex interaction between the virus, the host, and, at least in part, immune-mediated mechanisms. Vaccine development has been slowed by fears that immunisation might predispose individuals to the severe form of dengue infection. A pipeline of candidate vaccines now exists, including live attenuated, inactivated, chimeric, DNA, and viral-vector vaccines, some of which are at the stage of clinical testing. In this Review, we present what is understood about dengue pathogenesis and its implications for vaccine design, the progress that is being made in the development of a vaccine, and the future challenges.
Anticancer Res, 29 (11), pp. 4337-4343. | Citations: 43 (Scopus) | Show Abstract2009. Mutation analysis of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF1A and HIF2A in renal cell carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: Inactivation of the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene leading to overexpression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF)-1alpha and -2alpha is a critical event in the pathogenesis of most clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC). HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha share significant homology and regulate overlapping repertoires of hypoxia-inducible target genes but may have differing effects on RCC cell growth. Loss of HIF-1alpha expression has been described in RCC cell lines and primary tumours. Whether mutations in the alpha-subunits of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha contribute to renal tumourigenesis was investigated here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha was carried out in primary RCC (n=40). RESULTS: The analysis revealed a somatic HIF1A missense substitution, p.Val116Glu, in a single RCC. Functional studies demonstrated that p.Val116Glu impaired HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity. Genotyping of HIF1A variants p.Pro582Ser and p.Ala588Thr demonstrated no significant differences between RCC patients and controls. CONCLUSION: The detection of a loss-of-function HIF1A mutation in a primary RCC is consistent with HIF-1 and HIF-2 having different roles in renal tumourigenesis, However, somatic mutations of HIF1A are not frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of RCC.
Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (43), pp. 13473-13483. | Read more2009. A Key Role for gp130 Expressed on Peripheral Sensory Nerves in Pathological Pain
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected infants. METHODS: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIV-exposed uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers. HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed uninfected infants were studied for 1 year. RESULTS: CMV DNA was detected frequently during the first months of life; by 3 months of age, CMV DNA was detected in 90% of HIV-exposed uninfected infants and 93% of infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. CMV viral loads were highest in the 1-3 months following the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were significantly higher in the HIV-infected infants compared with the HIV-exposed uninfected infants (mean 3.2 versus 2.7 log10 CMV DNA copies/ml, respectively, P = 0.03). The detection of CMV DNA persisted to 7-9 months post-CMV infection in both the HIV-exposed uninfected (8/17, 47%) and HIV-infected (13/18, 72%, P = 0.2) children. Among HIV-infected children, CMV DNA was detected in three of the seven (43%) surviving infants tested between 19 and 21 months post-CMV infection. Finally, a strong correlation was found between peak CMV and HIV-1 viral loads (rho = 0.40, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Acute CMV coinfection is common in HIV-infected Kenyan infants. HIV-1 infection was associated with impaired containment of CMV replication.
Members of the Pim kinase family have been identified as promising targets for the development of antitumor agents. After a screening of pyrrolo[2,3-a]- and [3,2-a]carbazole derivatives toward 66 protein kinases, we identified pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole as a new scaffold to design potent Pim kinase inhibitors. In particular, compound 9 was identified as a low nM selective Pim inhibitor. Additionally, several pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole derivatives showed selectivity for Pim-1 and Pim-3 over Pim-2. In vitro antiproliferative activities of 9 and 28, the most potent Pim inhibitors identified, were evaluated toward three human solid cancer cell lines (PA1, PC3, and DU145) and one human fibroblast primary culture, revealing IC50 values in the micromolar range. Finally, the crystal structure of Pim-1 complexed with lead compound 9 was determined. The structure revealed a non-ATP mimetic binding mode with no hydrogen bonds formed with the kinase hinge region and explained the selectivity of pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole derivatives for Pim kinases.
Base excision repair (BER) is the major cellular pathway involved in removal of endogenous/spontaneous DNA lesions. Here, we study the mechanism that controls the steady-state levels of BER enzymes in human cells. By fractionating human cell extract, we purified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule (ARF-BP1/HectH9) as an enzyme that can ubiquitylate DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta), the major BER DNA polymerase. We identified lysines 41, 61 and 81 as the major sites of modification and show that replacement of these lysines to arginines leads to increased protein stability. We further show that the cellular levels of Pol beta and its ubiquitylated derivative are modulated by Mule and ARF and siRNA knockdown of Mule leads to accumulation of Pol beta and increased DNA repair. Our findings provide a novel mechanism regulating steady-state levels of BER proteins.
CONTEXT: Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension in respiratory disease and at high altitude. Recent work has established that the effect of hypoxia on pulmonary arterial pressure may depend on iron status, possibly acting through the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor, but the pathophysiological and clinical importance of this interaction is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increasing or decreasing iron availability modifies altitude-induced hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocols conducted in October-November 2008. In the first protocol, 22 healthy sea-level resident men (aged 19-60 years) were studied over 1 week of hypoxia at Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4340 m). In the second protocol, 11 high-altitude resident men (aged 30-59 years) diagnosed with chronic mountain sickness were studied over 1 month of hypoxia at Cerro de Pasco, Peru. INTERVENTION: In the first protocol, participants received intravenous infusions of Fe(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or placebo on the third day of hypoxia. In the second protocol, patients underwent staged isovolemic venesection of 2 L of blood. Two weeks later, patients received intravenous infusions of Fe(III)-hydroxide sucrose (400 mg) or placebo, which were subsequently crossed over. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Effect of varying iron availability on pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: In the sea-level resident protocol, approximately 40% of the pulmonary hypertensive response to hypoxia was reversed by infusion of iron, which reduced PASP by 6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 4-8 mm Hg), from 37 mm Hg (95% CI, 34-40 mm Hg) to 31 mm Hg (95% CI, 29-33 mm Hg; P = .01). In the chronic mountain sickness protocol, progressive iron deficiency induced by venesection was associated with an approximately 25% increase in PASP of 9 mm Hg (95% CI, 4-14 mm Hg), from 37 mm Hg (95% CI, 30-44 mm Hg) to 46 mm Hg (95% CI, 40-52 mm Hg; P = .003). During the subsequent crossover period, no acute effect of iron replacement on PASP was detected. CONCLUSION: Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension may be attenuated by iron supplementation and exacerbated by iron depletion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00952302.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if peripheral blood monocytes from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) differed in protein expression compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Monocyte protein expression was characterised by 2D gel electrophoresis and by label-free quantitative expression profiling, using nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(E), where (E) refers to low/high collision energy switching). Data sets were analysed using the Waters expression profiling system and Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed upregulation of proteasomal constituents in AS monocytes, including the beta subunit of proteasome activator (PA)28. Monocyte expression profiling and IPA showed that significant changes in protein expression within the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) were restricted to AS monocytes. Statistically significant differences in protein expression involving the leucocyte extravasation, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and Toll-like receptor signalling pathways were seen in AS and RA monocytes compared to healthy controls. No evidence of upregulation of proteins involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response pathway was found in either AS or RA monocytes. Finally, the PA28 complex was shown to increase the generation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 antigenic epitopes by the proteasome in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic analyses support the hypothesis that monocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of AS and RA, and further suggest a specific role in AS for the UPP. Quantitative proteomic expression profiling constitutes a powerful new tool for rheumatology research.
Studies on hypoxia-sensitive pathways have identified a series of Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases that regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation. The asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) targets a conserved asparaginyl residue in the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-alpha. This modification suppresses HIF transcriptional activity by inhibiting co-activator recruitment. Recent work has demonstrated that FIH targets an alternative class of substrate. Proteins containing a common interaction motif known as the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) have been shown to be efficiently hydroxylated by FIH. This review aims to summarize what is currently known regarding ARD hydroxylation, including the kinetics and determinants of FIH-mediated ARD hydroxylation, the structural and functional consequences of ARD hydroxylation, and the potential for cross-talk between ARD proteins and HIF signaling.
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, 183 (7), pp. 4569-4582. | Citations: 38 (Web of Science Lite) | Read more2009. Dimorphic Motifs in D0 and D1+D2 Domains of Killer Cell Ig-Like Receptor 3DL1 Combine to Form Receptors with High, Moderate, and No Avidity for the Complex of a Peptide Derived from HIV and HLA-A*2402
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 380 (4), pp. 311-325. | Read more2009. The effects of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB-705498 on trigeminovascular sensitisation and neurotransmission
Deposits of Ig and complement are abundant in affected joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in animal models of RA in which antibodies are demonstrably pathogenic. To identify molecular targets of the Igs deposited in arthritic joints, which may activate local inflammation, we used a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and protein microarrays. Immune complexes were affinity-purified from surgically removed joint tissues of 26 RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Proteins complexed with IgG were identified by proteomic analysis using tandem MS. A striking diversity of components of the extracellular matrix, and some intracellular components, copurified specifically with IgG from RA and OA tissues. A smaller set of autoantigens was observed only in RA eluates. In complementary experiments, IgG fractions purified from joint immune complexes were tested on protein microarrays against a range of candidate autoantigens. These Igs bound a diverse subset of proteins and peptides from synovium and cartilage, different from that bound by normal serum Ig. One type of intracellular protein detected specifically in RA joints (histones H2A/B) was validated by immunohistology and found to be deposited on the cartilage surface of RA but not OA joints. Thus, autoantibodies to many determinants (whether deposited as "neoantigens" or normal constituents of the extracellular matrix) have the potential to contribute to arthritic inflammation.
By replacement of an acetate with propionate through organic synthesis a range of zearalenone analogues were prepared. As key steps in the synthesis of the analogues we used the Noyori hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate followed by Frater alkylation of the enantiomeric 3-hydroxybutyrates. This converted the second acetate to a propionate. Through the derived alkyne, chain extension led to 3-methylundec-10-en-2-ol derivatives. These were condensed with 2,4-dimethoxy-6-vinylbenzoic acid. Ring-closing metathesis of the obtained esters led to macrolactones, which were deproteced to give the zearalenone analogues. Several of the analogues showed cytotoxicity against the L929 mouse fibroblast cell line comparable to zearalenone (9 microM) itself. In the thermal-shift assay, two analogues 35 and ent-35 displayed stronger binding than the natural product geldanamycin to the chaperone Hsp90.
Ubiquitination has emerged as one of the major post-translational modifications that decide on protein fate, targeting, and regulation of protein function. Whereas the ubiquitination of proteins can be monitored with classic biochemical methods, the mapping of modified side chains proves to be challenging. More recently, mass spectrometry has been applied to identify ubiquitinated proteins and also their sites of modification. Typically, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based approaches, including collision-induced fragmentation (CID), have been successfully used in the past. However, a potential difficulty arises from the unstable nature of this modification, and also that the isopeptide bond linkage between C-terminal glycine and the N(epsilon) lysyl side chain is susceptible to fragmentation under these conditions. Here we investigate the utility of electron-transfer dissociation (ETD)-based fragmentation to detect ubiquitination sites in proteins. Our results indicate that ETD can provide alternative fragmentation patterns that allow detection of gly-gly-modified lysyl side chains, in particular z+1 fragment ions derived from triply charged precursor ions. We subsequently applied ETD fragmentation-based analysis and detected novel ubiquitination sites on DNA polymerase B1 that were not easily observed using CID. We conclude that ETD can provide significant alternative fragmentation information that complements CID-derived data to improve the coverage when mapping ubiquitination sites in proteins.
Hereditary hemochromatosis is most frequently associated with mutations in HFE, which encodes a class Ib histocompatibility protein. HFE binds to the transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) in competition with iron-loaded transferrin (Fe-Tf). HFE is released from TfR1 by increasing concentrations of Fe-Tf, and free HFE may then regulate iron homeostasis by binding other ligands. To search for new HFE ligands we expressed recombinant forms of HFE in the human cell line 293T. HFE protein was purified, biotinylated and made into fluorescently labelled tetramers. HFE tetramers bound to TfR1 in competition with Tf, but in addition we detected a binding activity on some cell types that was not blocked by Fe-Tf or by mutations in HFE that prevent binding to TfR1. We identified this second HFE ligand as the cation independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR, also known as the insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor, IGF2R). HFE:CI-MPR binding was mediated through phosphorylated mannose residues on HFE. Recombinant murine Hfe also bound to CI-MPR. HFE bound to TfR1 was prevented from binding CI-MPR until released by increasing concentrations of Fe-Tf, a feature consistent with an iron sensing mechanism. However, it remains to be determined whether endogenous HFE in vivo also acquires the mannose-6 phosphate modification and binds to CI-MPR.
FLT3-ITD-mediated leukemogenesis is associated with increased expression of oncogenic PIM serine/threonine kinases. To dissect their role in FLT3-ITD-mediated transformation, we performed bone marrow reconstitution assays. Unexpectedly, FLT3-ITD cells deficient for PIM1 failed to reconstitute lethally irradiated recipients, whereas lack of PIM2 induction did not interfere with FLT3-ITD-induced disease. PIM1-deficient bone marrow showed defects in homing and migration and displayed decreased surface CXCR4 expression and impaired CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling. Through small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown, chemical inhibition, expression of a dominant-negative mutant, and/or reexpression in knockout cells, we found PIM1 activity to be essential for proper CXCR4 surface expression and migration of cells toward a CXCL12 gradient. Purified PIM1 led to the phosphorylation of serine 339 in the CXCR4 intracellular domain in vitro, a site known to be essential for normal receptor recycling. In primary leukemic blasts, high levels of surface CXCR4 were associated with increased PIM1 expression, and this could be significantly reduced by a small molecule PIM inhibitor in some patients. Our data suggest that PIM1 activity is important for homing and migration of hematopoietic cells through modification of CXCR4. Because CXCR4 also regulates homing and maintenance of cancer stem cells, PIM1 inhibitors may exert their antitumor effects in part by interfering with interactions with the microenvironment.
SH2 domains are phosphotyrosine specific interaction modules with largely overlapping sequence specificities. A recent structure by Bae et al. revealed that SH2 domain specificity can be mediated by secondary binding sites located outside the phosphotyrosine binding pocket.
"Regulator of G-protein signaling" (RGS) proteins facilitate the termination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via their ability to increase the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of Galpha subunits (known as GTPase-accelerating protein or "GAP" activity). RGS2 is unique in its in vitro potency and selectivity as a GAP for Galpha(q) subunits. As many vasoconstrictive hormones signal via G(q) heterotrimer-coupled receptors, it is perhaps not surprising that RGS2-deficient mice exhibit constitutive hypertension. However, to date the particular structural features within RGS2 determining its selectivity for Galpha(q) over Galpha(i/o) substrates have not been completely characterized. Here, we examine a trio of point mutations to RGS2 that elicits Galpha(i)-directed binding and GAP activities without perturbing its association with Galpha(q). Using x-ray crystallography, we determined a model of the triple mutant RGS2 in complex with a transition state mimetic form of Galpha(i) at 2.8-A resolution. Structural comparison with unliganded, wild type RGS2 and of other RGS domain/Galpha complexes highlighted the roles of these residues in wild type RGS2 that weaken Galpha(i) subunit association. Moreover, these three amino acids are seen to be evolutionarily conserved among organisms with modern cardiovascular systems, suggesting that RGS2 arose from the R4-subfamily of RGS proteins to have specialized activity as a potent and selective Galpha(q) GAP that modulates cardiovascular function.
The finding that the metazoan hypoxic response is regulated by oxygen-dependent posttranslational hydroxylations, which regulate the activity and lifetime of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), has raised the question of whether other hydroxylases are involved in the regulation of gene expression. We reveal that the splicing factor U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 65-kilodalton subunit (U2AF65) undergoes posttranslational lysyl-5-hydroxylation catalyzed by the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase Jumonji domain-6 protein (Jmjd6). Jmjd6 is a nuclear protein that has an important role in vertebrate development and is a human homolog of the HIF asparaginyl-hydroxylase. Jmjd6 is shown to change alternative RNA splicing of some, but not all, of the endogenous and reporter genes, supporting a specific role for Jmjd6 in the regulation of RNA splicing.
Drug design, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and drug resistance studies have focused almost exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), resulting in limited information for patients infected with HIV-2 and for those dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2. In this study, 20 patients, 12 infected with HIV-2 and 8 dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2, all treated with zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), and lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), were followed up longitudinally for about 3 years. For 19/20 patients, viral loads were reduced to undetectable levels; the patient whose viral load remained detectable reported adverse effects associated with LPV/r that had caused him to stop taking all the drugs. HIV-2 strains containing mutations in both the protease and the reverse transcriptase gene that may confer drug resistance were observed in two patients with viral rebound, as early as 130 days (4.3 months) after the initiation of therapy. We conclude that the combination of ZDV, 3TC, and LPV/r is able to provide efficient and durable suppression of HIV-1 and HIV-2 for as long as 3 years in HIV-2-infected and dually infected patients. However, the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains containing drug-resistant mutations can compromise the efficacy of this highly active ART.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls an extensive range of adaptive responses to hypoxia. To better understand this transcriptional cascade we performed genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation using antibodies to two major HIF-alpha subunits, and correlated the results with genome-wide transcript profiling. Within a tiled promoter array we identified 546 and 143 sequences that bound, respectively, to HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha at high stringency. Analysis of these sequences confirmed an identical core binding motif for HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha (RCGTG) but demonstrated that binding to this motif was highly selective, with binding enriched at distinct regions both upstream and downstream of the transcriptional start. Comparison of HIF-promoter binding data with bidirectional HIF-dependent changes in transcript expression indicated that whereas a substantial proportion of positive responses (>20% across all significantly regulated genes) are direct, HIF-dependent gene suppression is almost entirely indirect. Comparison of HIF-1alpha- versus HIF-2alpha-binding sites revealed that whereas some loci bound HIF-1alpha in isolation, many bound both isoforms with similar affinity. Despite high-affinity binding to multiple promoters, HIF-2alpha contributed to few, if any, of the transcriptional responses to acute hypoxia at these loci. Given emerging evidence for biologically distinct functions of HIF-1alpha versus HIF-2alpha understanding the mechanisms restricting HIF-2alpha activity will be of interest.
We report the possible transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 2. A 66-year-old woman from rural Guinea Bissau who had no obvious antiretroviral exposure was found to harbor a variant with the multidrug-resistance mutation Q151M. Finding this mutation among a drug-naive population presents an important public health issue that needs to be addressed for treatment to be effective.
The p21 activated kinases (PAKs) play an essential role in cell signaling and control a variety of cellular functions including cell motility, survival, angiogenesis and mitosis. PAKs are important regulators in growth factor signaling, cytoskeletal reorganization and growth factor-mediated cell migration. Overexpression of PAKs has been detected in many cancers and linked to increased migration potential, anchorage independent growth and metastasis. Six isoforms of PAKs are expressed in human and based on their regulatory properties they have been classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Besides the well studied group I family, members of the group II PAKs also emerged as interesting targets for the development of new inhibitors for cancer therapy. The availability of high resolution crystal structures for all group II PAKs and their fundamentally different regulatory properties when compared with group I enzymes has opened new opportunities for rational drug designing strategies. In this review, we summarize the results of recent advances of the function of group II PAKs in tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as opportunities for exploring the unique catalytic domain dynamics of this protein family for the design of group II PAK specific inhibitors.
The asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH [factor inhibiting HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)] was first identified as a protein that inhibits transcriptional activation by HIF, through hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the CAD (C-terminal activation domain). More recently, several ARD [AR (ankyrin repeat) domain]-containing proteins were identified as FIH substrates using FIH interaction assays. Although the function(s) of these ARD hydroxylations is unclear, expression of the ARD protein Notch1 was shown to compete efficiently with HIF CAD for asparagine hydroxylation and thus to enhance HIF activity. The ARD is a common protein domain with over 300 examples in the human proteome. However, the extent of hydroxylation among ARD proteins, and the ability of other members to compete with HIF-CAD for FIH, is not known. In the present study we assay for asparagine hydroxylation in a bioinformatically predicted FIH substrate, the targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase, MYPT1. Our results confirm hydroxylation both in cultured cells and in endogenous protein purified from animal tissue. We show that the extent of hydroxylation at three sites is dependent on FIH expression level and that hydroxylation is incomplete under basal conditions even in the animal tissue. We also show that expression of MYPT1 enhances HIF-CAD activity in a manner consistent with competition for FIH and that this property extends to other ARD proteins. These results extend the range of FIH substrates and suggest that cross-competition between ARDs and HIF-CAD, and between ARDs themselves, may be extensive and have important effects on hypoxia signalling.
Infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life have a lower viral set-point and slower disease progression than infants infected before 1 month. We investigated the kinetics of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma in infants infected before 1 month of life compared with those infected between months 1 and 12 (late infection). HIV-1 infection was assessed at birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 and timing of infection was determined by HIV-1 gag DNA from dried blood spots and verified by plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. HIV-1 peptide-specific IFN-gamma responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12. Timing of development of IFN-gamma responses was compared using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Infants infected late developed HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses 2.8 months sooner than infants infected peripartum: 2.3 versus 5.1 months after HIV-1 infection (n = 52, P = 0.04). Late-infected infants had more focused epitope recognition than early-infected infants (median 1 versus 2 peptides, P = 0.03); however, there were no differences in the strength of IFN-gamma responses. In infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life, emergence of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) IFN-gamma responses is coincident with the decline in viral load, nearly identical to what is observed in adults and more rapid than in early-infected infants.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 51 (2), pp. 235-237. | Citations: 7 (European Pubmed Central) | Read more2009. CCR2-64I polymorphism is associated with lower maternal HIV-1 viral load and reduced vertical HIV-1 transmission.
The fatal immune dysregulation that sometimes follows EBV infection in boys has been linked to mutations in two X chromosome-encoded genes, SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). In this study we describe 2 girls from a consanguineous Turkish family who died after developing severe immune dysregulation and therapy-resistant EBV-positive B cell proliferation following EBV infection. SNP array-based genome-wide linkage analysis revealed IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) as a candidate gene for this immunodeficiency syndrome. Both girls harbored a homozygous missense mutation that led to substitution of a highly conserved residue (R335W) in the SH2 domain of ITK. Characteristics of ITK deficiency in mouse models, such as absence of NKT cells and high levels of eomesodermin in CD8+ cells, were seen in either one or both of the girls. Two lines of evidence suggested that R335W caused instability of the ITK protein. First, in silico modeling of the mutant protein predicted destabilization of the SH2 domain. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that, unlike wild-type ITK, the R335W mutant was nearly undetectable when expressed in 293 T cells. Our results suggest that ITK deficiency causes what we believe to be a novel immunodeficiency syndrome that leads to a fatal inadequate immune response to EBV. Because ITK deficiency resembles EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in boys, we suggest that this molecular cause should be considered during diagnosis and treatment.
KLINISCHE PADIATRIE, 221 (3), pp. 209-209.2009. Missense mutation in the inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) leading to immunodeficiency and fatal immune dysregulation after EBV infection
Nat Med, 15 (5), pp. 491-493. | Citations: 9 (Scopus) | Read more2009. Angiogenesis: escape from hypoxia.
Bioinformatics, 25 (8), pp. 1004-1011. | Read more2009. MS-specific noise model reveals the potential of iTRAQ in quantitative proteomics
Science, 324 (5924), pp. 192-194. | Citations: 47 (Scopus) | Read more2009. Cancer. Puzzling patterns of predisposition.
Dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase composed of a kinase domain and a coiled-coil domain involved in the multimerization. The crystal structure of the kinase domain of DMPK bound to the inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide VIII (BIM-8) revealed a dimeric enzyme associated by a conserved dimerization domain. The affinity of dimerisation suggested that the kinase domain alone is insufficient for dimerisation in vivo and that the coiled-coil domains are required for stable dimer formation. The kinase domain is in an active conformation, with a fully-ordered and correctly positioned alphaC helix, and catalytic residues in a conformation competent for catalysis. The conserved hydrophobic motif at the C-terminal extension of the kinase domain is bound to the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain, despite being unphosphorylated. Differences in the arrangement of the C-terminal extension compared to the closely related Rho-associated kinases include an altered PXXP motif, a different conformation and binding arrangement for the turn motif, and a different location for the conserved NFD motif. The BIM-8 inhibitor occupies the ATP site and has similar binding mode as observed in PDK1.
Cancer cells in hypoxic areas of solid tumors are to a large extent protected against the action of radiation as well as many chemotherapeutic drugs. There are, however, two different aspects of the problem caused by tumor hypoxia when cancer therapy is concerned: One is due to the chemical reactions that molecular oxygen enters into therapeutically targeted cells. This results in a direct chemical protection against therapy by the hypoxic microenvironment, which has little to do with cellular biological regulatory processes. This part of the protective effect of hypoxia has been known for more than half a century and has been studied extensively. However, in recent years there has been more focus on the other aspect of hypoxia, namely the effect of this microenvironmental condition on selecting cells with certain genetic prerequisites that are negative with respect to patient prognosis. There are adaptive mechanisms, where hypoxia induces regulatory cascades in cells resulting in a changed metabolism or changes in extracellular signaling. These processes may lead to changes in cellular intrinsic sensitivity to treatment irrespective of oxygenation and, furthermore, may also have consequences for tissue organization. Thus, the adaptive mechanisms induced by hypoxia itself may have a selective effect on cells, with a fine-tuned protection against damage and stress of many kinds. It therefore could be that the adaptive mechanisms may take advantage of for new tumor labeling/imaging and treatment strategies. One of the Achilles' heels of hypoxia research has always been the exact measurements of tissue oxygenation as well as the control of oxygenation in biological tumor models. Thus, development of technology that can ease this control is vital in order to study mechanisms and perform drug development under relevant conditions. An integrated EU Framework project 2004-2009, termed EUROXY, demonstrates several pathways involved in transcription and translation control of the hypoxic cell phenotype and evidence of cross-talk with responses to pH and redox changes. The carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme CA IX was selected for further studies due to its expression on the surface of many types of hypoxic tumors. The effort has led to marketable culture flasks with sensors and incubation equipment, and the synthesis of new drug candidates against new molecular targets. New labeling/imaging methods for cancer diagnosing and imaging of hypoxic cancer tissue are now being tested in xenograft models and are also in early clinical testing, while new potential anti-cancer drugs are undergoing tests using xenografted tumor cancers. The present article describes the above results in individual consortium partner presentations.
Breast-feeding by infants exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) provides an opportunity to assess the role played by repeated HIV-1 exposure in eliciting HIV-1-specific immunity and in defining whether immune responses correlate with protection from infection.Breast-feeding infants born to HIV-1-seropositive women were assessed for HLA-selected HIV-1 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte interferon (IFN)-gamma responses by means of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Responses were deemed to be positive when they reached > or = 50 HIV-1-specific sfu/1 x 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and were at least twice those of negative controls.A total of 807 ELISpot assays were performed for 217 infants who remained uninfected with HIV-1 at approximately 12 months of age; 101 infants (47%) had at least 1 positive ELISpot result (median, 78-170 sfu/1 x 10(6) PBMCs). The prevalence and magnitude of responses increased with age (P = .01 and P = .007, respectively); the median log(10) value for HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma responses increased by 1.0 sfu/1 x 10(6) PBMCs/month (P < .001) between 1 and 12 months of age. Of 141 HIV-1-uninfected infants with 1-month ELISpot results, 10 (7%) acquired HIV-1 infection (0/16 with positive vs. 10/125 [8%] with negative ELISpot results; P = .6). Higher values for log(10) HIV-1-specific spot-forming units at 1 month of age were associated with a decreased risk of HIV-1 infection, adjusted for maternal HIV-1 RNA level (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.09 [95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.72]).. Breast-feeding HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants frequently had HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma responses. Greater early HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma responses were associated with decreased HIV-1 acquisition.
Splicing requires reversible phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, which direct splice site selection in eukaryotic mRNA. These phosphorylation events are dependent on SR protein (SRPK) and cdc2-like kinase (CLK) families. SRPK1 phosphorylation of splicing factors is restricted by a specific docking interaction whereas CLK activity is less constrained. To understand functional differences between splicing factor targeting kinases, we determined crystal structures of CLK1 and CLK3. Intriguingly, in CLKs the SRPK1 docking site is blocked by insertion of a previously unseen helix alphaH. In addition, substrate docking grooves present in related mitogen activating protein kinases (MAPKs) are inaccessible due to a CLK specific beta7/8-hairpin insert. Thus, the unconstrained substrate interaction together with the determined active-site mediated substrate specificity allows CLKs to complete the functionally important hyperphosphorylation of splicing factors like ASF/SF2. In addition, despite high sequence conservation, we identified inhibitors with surprising isoform specificity for CLK1 over CLK3.
A key function of blood vessels, to supply oxygen, is impaired in tumors because of abnormalities in their endothelial lining. PHD proteins serve as oxygen sensors and may regulate oxygen delivery. We therefore studied the role of endothelial PHD2 in vessel shaping by implanting tumors in PHD2(+/-) mice. Haplodeficiency of PHD2 did not affect tumor vessel density or lumen size, but normalized the endothelial lining and vessel maturation. This resulted in improved tumor perfusion and oxygenation and inhibited tumor cell invasion, intravasation, and metastasis. Haplodeficiency of PHD2 redirected the specification of endothelial tip cells to a more quiescent cell type, lacking filopodia and arrayed in a phalanx formation. This transition relied on HIF-driven upregulation of (soluble) VEGFR-1 and VE-cadherin. Thus, decreased activity of an oxygen sensor in hypoxic conditions prompts endothelial cells to readjust their shape and phenotype to restore oxygen supply. Inhibition of PHD2 may offer alternative therapeutic opportunities for anticancer therapy.
Retrovirology, 6 (Suppl 3), pp. P136-P136. | Read more2009. P10-05. Suppression of human dendritic cell function during acute HIV infection.
Post-translational hydroxylation has been considered an unusual modification on intracellular proteins. However, following the recognition that oxygen-sensitive prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation are central to the regulation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), interest has centered on the possibility that these enzymes may have other substrates in the proteome. In support of this certain ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-containing proteins, including members of the IkappaB and Notch families, have been identified as alternative substrates of the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). Although these findings imply a potentially broad range of substrates for FIH, the precise extent of this range has been difficult to determine because of the difficulty of capturing transient enzyme-substrate interactions. Here we describe the use of pharmacological "substrate trapping" together with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) technology to stabilize and identify potential FIH-substrate interactions by mass spectrometry. To pursue these potential FIH substrates we used conventional data-directed tandem MS together with alternating low/high collision energy tandem MS to assign and quantitate hydroxylation at target asparaginyl residues. Overall the work has defined 13 new FIH-dependent hydroxylation sites with a degenerate consensus corresponding to that of the ankyrin repeat and a range of ARD-containing proteins as actual and potential substrates for FIH. Several ARD-containing proteins were multiply hydroxylated, and detailed studies of one, Tankyrase-2, revealed eight sites that were differentially sensitive to FIH-catalyzed hydroxylation. These findings indicate that asparaginyl hydroxylation is likely to be widespread among the approximately 300 ARD-containing species in the human proteome.
OTUB (otubain) 1 is a human deubiquitinating enzyme that is implicated in mediating lymphocyte antigen responsiveness, but whose molecular function is generally not well defined. A structural analysis of OTUB1 shows differences in accessibility to the active site and in surface properties of the substrate-binding regions when compared with its close homologue, OTUB2, suggesting variations in regulatory mechanisms and substrate specificity. Biochemical analysis reveals that OTUB1 has a preference for cleaving Lys(48)-linked polyubiquitin chains over Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains, and it is capable of cleaving NEDD8 (neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8), but not SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) 1/2/3 and ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15) conjugates. A functional comparison of OTUB1 and OTUB2 indicated a differential reactivity towards ubiquitin-based active-site probes carrying a vinyl methyl ester, a 2-chloroethyl or a 2-bromoethyl group at the C-terminus. Mutational analysis suggested that a narrow P1' site, as observed in OTUB1, correlates with its ability to preferentially cleave Lys(48)-linked ubiquitin chains. Analysis of cellular interaction partners of OTUB1 by co-immunoprecipitation and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) experiments demonstrated that FUS [fusion involved in t(12;6) in malignant liposarcoma; also known as TLS (translocation in liposarcoma) or CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein)] and RACK1 [receptor for activated kinase 1; also known as GNB2L1 (guanine-nucleotide-binding protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1)] are part of OTUB1-containing complexes, pointing towards a molecular function of this deubiquitinating enzyme in RNA processing and cell adhesion/morphology.
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 168 (3), pp. 380-380.2009. Identification of a novel primary immunodeficiency syndrome leading to an XLP-like phenotype in girls
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and has been identified in different contexts as a hypoxia-inducible gene product and as a molecule involved in hepcidin regulation. The biology of iron and oxygen is closely related, and known regulatory pathways involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) are responsive to both these stimuli. We therefore sought to characterize the regulation of GDF15 by iron and oxygen and to define the involvement or otherwise of HIF and IRP pathways. Here we show that GDF15 is strongly up-regulated by stimuli that deplete cells of iron and that this response is specifically antagonized by the reprovision of iron. GDF15 exhibits greater sensitivity to iron depletion than hypoxia, and responses to hypoxia and iron depletion are independent of HIF and IRP activation, suggesting a novel mechanism of regulation. We also report significant induction of serum GDF15 in iron-deficient subjects and after administration of an iron chelator to normal subjects. These findings indicate that GDF15 can be induced by pathophysiologic changes in iron availability, raising important questions about the mechanism of regulation and its role in iron homeostasis.
Enabled by novel molecular markers, fluorescence microscopy enables the monitoring of multiple cellular functions using live cell assays. Automated image analysis is necessary to monitor such model systems in a high-throughput and high-content environment. Here, we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously track cell cycle phase and cell motion at the single cell level. Using a recently introduced cell cycle marker, we present a set of image analysis tools for automated cell phase analysis of live cells over extended time periods. Our model-based approach enables the characterization of the four phases of the cell cycle G1, S, G2, and M, which enables the study of the effect of inhibitor compounds that are designed to block the replication of cancerous cells in any of the phases. We approach the tracking problem as a spatio-temporal volume segmentation task, where the 2D slices are stacked into a volume with time as the z dimension. The segmentation of the G2 and S phases is accomplished using level sets, and we designed a model-based shape/size constraint to control the evolution of the level set. Our main contribution is the design of a speed function coupled with a fast marching path planning approach for tracking cells across the G1 phase based on the appearance change of the nuclei. The viability of our approach is demonstrated by presenting quantitative results on both controls and cases in which cells are treated with a cell cycle inhibitor.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a critical role in regulating cellular functions by selectively dephosphorylating their substrates. Here we present 22 human PTP crystal structures that, together with prior structural knowledge, enable a comprehensive analysis of the classical PTP family. Despite their largely conserved fold, surface properties of PTPs are strikingly diverse. A potential secondary substrate-binding pocket is frequently found in phosphatases, and this has implications for both substrate recognition and development of selective inhibitors. Structural comparison identified four diverse catalytic loop (WPD) conformations and suggested a mechanism for loop closure. Enzymatic assays revealed vast differences in PTP catalytic activity and identified PTPD1, PTPD2, and HDPTP as catalytically inert protein phosphatases. We propose a "head-to-toe" dimerization model for RPTPgamma/zeta that is distinct from the "inhibitory wedge" model and that provides a molecular basis for inhibitory regulation. This phosphatome resource gives an expanded insight into intrafamily PTP diversity, catalytic activity, substrate recognition, and autoregulatory self-association.
In order to extend the chemical diversity available for organic polyketide synthesis, the concept of propionate scanning was developed. We observed that naturally occurring polyketides frequently comprise not only acetate, but also some propionate as building blocks. Therefore our approach consists of a systematic replacement of some of the acetate building blocks during synthesis by propionate moieties, resulting in additional methyl groups that may give rise to different properties of the polyketides. Here we present the results of a first 'proof of concept' study where a novel zearalenone analogue 5 was prepared that comprises an additional methyl group at C5'. Key steps in the synthesis of 5 include a Marshall-Tamaru reaction, a Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and a Mitsunobu lactonization. Compared to the parent zearalenone (1), analogue 5 showed reduced binding to a panel of human protein kinases and no binding to human Hsp90. On the other hand, however, 5 turned out to be a potent (IC(50)=210 nM) inhibitor of human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1).
About 10% of all protein kinases are predicted to be enzymatically inactive pseudokinases, but the structural details of kinase inactivation have remained unclear. We present the first structure of a pseudokinase, VRK3, and that of its closest active relative, VRK2. Profound changes to the active site region underlie the loss of catalytic activity, and VRK3 cannot bind ATP because of residue substitutions in the binding pocket. However, VRK3 still shares striking structural similarity with VRK2, and appears to be locked in a pseudoactive conformation. VRK3 also conserves residue interactions that are surprising in the absence of enzymatic function; these appear to play important architectural roles required for the residual functions of VRK3. Remarkably, VRK3 has an "inverted" pattern of sequence conservation: although the active site is poorly conserved, portions of the molecular surface show very high conservation, suggesting that they form key interactions that explain the evolutionary retention of VRK3.
OBJECTIVES: The HIV-1 Nef protein selectively downregulates human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and HLA-B but not HLA-C molecules on the surface of infected cells. This allows HIV-infected cells to evade recognition by most cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. We investigated the recognition of an HLA-Cw4-restricted HIV-1 gp120 epitope SFNCGGEFF (SF9) and its variant SFNCGGEFL (SL9) by T cells and NK receptors. DESIGN AND METHOD: Recognition of HIV-1 gp120 peptides (SF9 and SL9) by T-cell clones was measured by staining with HLA-Cw4-peptide tetrameric complexes and cytolytic assays using target cell pulsed with either peptides. KIR2DL1 binding to these two peptides was measured using surface plasmon resonance and tetramer staining of an NK cell line. RESULT: : CTLs could recognize SF9 better than the variant SL9, as shown by both tetramer staining and cytolytic assays. Intriguingly, an HLA-Cw4 tetramer folded with the 'escape' variant SL9 could bind to KIR2DL1 on NK cell lines with higher affinity than HLA-Cw4-SF9. The binding of KIR2DL1 to its ligand results in inhibition of NK cell function. Our results indicate that the HIV-1 gp120 variant peptide SL9 could potentially escape both from NK cell and CTL recognition by increasing its affinity for KIR2DL1 binding. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that HIV-1 can acquire mutations that are capable of escaping from both CTL and NK cell recognition, a phenomenon we have termed 'double escape'.
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in healthy neonates and individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of CMV DNA (CMV DNAemia) in maternal plasma was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected women or their infants. METHODS: A longitudinal study was designed to examine the relationship between maternal CMV DNAemia and maternal-infant mortality during 2 years postpartum. Sixty-four HIV-1-infected women and their infants were studied. CMV DNA loads were quantified in plasma from the mothers near the time of delivery. Baseline maternal CD4 cell counts, CD4%, HIV-1 RNA, and CMV DNAemia were evaluated as covariates of subsequent maternal or infant mortality in univariate and multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: CMV DNA was detected in 11/64 (17%) of the HIV-1-infected women. HIV-1 and CMV viral load were strongly correlated in CMV DNAemic women (rho = 0.84, P = 0.001). Detection of CMV DNAemia was associated with decreased maternal survival at 24 months postpartum (log-rank P = 0.006). Additionally, HIV-1-infected infants born to CMV DNAemic women had a four-fold increased risk of mortality during 24 months of follow-up. Maternal CMV DNAemia remained a significant risk factor for mortality in HIV-1-infected infants after adjusting for maternal CD4 cells/microl [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 4.3, confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13], CD4% (HR = 3.2, CI = 1.0-10), HIV-1 viral load (HR = 4.1, CI = 1.4-12) or maternal death (HR = 3.7, CI = 1.0-13). CONCLUSION: Maternal plasma CMV DNAemia identified a subgroup of Kenyan women and infants at high risk for death in the 2 years following delivery.
Ankyrin repeats (ARs) are one of the most common structural motifs among eukaryotic proteins. Recent analyses have shown that factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyses the hydroxylation of highly conserved Asn-residues within ankyrin repeat domains (ARDs). However, the effect of Asn-hydroxylation on ARD structure is unknown. Supporting the proposal that FIH-mediated ARD hydroxylation is ubiquitous we report that consensus ARD proteins are FIH substrates both in vitro and in vivo. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that hydroxylation does not alter the archetypical ARD conformation in the crystalline state. However, other biophysical analyses revealed that hydroxylation significantly stabilizes the ARD fold in solution. We propose that intracellular protein hydroxylation is much more common than previously thought and that one of its roles is stabilization of localized regions of ARD folds.
BACKGROUND: The serine/threonine kinase PIM2 is highly expressed in human leukemia and lymphomas and has been shown to positively regulate survival and proliferation of tumor cells. Its diverse ATP site makes PIM2 a promising target for the development of anticancer agents. To date our knowledge of catalytic domain structures of the PIM kinase family is limited to PIM1 which has been extensively studied and which shares about 50% sequence identity with PIM2. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we determined the crystal structure of PIM2 in complex with an organoruthenium complex (inhibition in sub-nanomolar level). Due to its extraordinary shape complementarity this stable organometallic compound is a highly potent inhibitor of PIM kinases. SIGNIFICANCE: The structure of PIM2 revealed several differences to PIM1 which may be explored further to generate isoform selective inhibitors. It has also demonstrated how an organometallic inhibitor can be adapted to the binding site of protein kinases to generate highly potent inhibitors. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.
For over 30 years, rapamycin has generated a sustained and intense interest from the scientific community as a result of its exceptional pharmacological properties and challenging structural features. In addition to its well known therapeutic value as a potent immunosuppressive agent, rapamycin and its derivatives have recently gained prominence for the treatment of a wide variety of other human malignancies. Herein we disclose full details of our extensive investigation into the synthesis of rapamycin that culminated in a new and convergent preparation featuring a macro-etherification/catechol-templating strategy for construction of the macrocyclic core of this natural product.
Cellular and systemic oxygen homeostasis is regulated by an oxygen-sensitive signalling pathway centred on a transcription factor known as Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF). Regulation of HIF activity and protein stability is mediated by a family of hydroxylases that act as oxygen sensors due to the dependence of the hydroxylation reaction on oxygen. The transcriptional activity of HIF is at least in part determined by asparaginyl hydroxylation by Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH) of a C-terminal residue that regulates co-activator recruitment. The activity of FIH on HIF is limiting; emerging data suggest this may be due to competition from a large family of alternative FIH substrates that act as a 'sink' for FIH activity. These alternative substrates are targeted for hydroxylation at conserved Asn residues within a protein interaction domain known as the Ankyrin Repeat Domain (ARD). Many ARD-containing proteins bind to FIH more tightly than does HIF. Furthermore, ARD proteins are common within the proteome and in some cases are highly abundant. Since ARD substrates bind to FIH in a similar manner to HIF it is thought that these properties of the ARD family lead to competitive inhibition of FIH-dependent HIF hydroxylation. We summarise the current literature here and discuss the possible role of cross-talk between the FIH, HIF and ARD systems in fine tuning hypoxia responses.
BACKGROUND: The HD-PTP protein has been described as a tumor suppressor candidate and based on its amino acid sequence, categorized as a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). To date, no HD-PTP phosphorylated substrate has been identified and controversial results concerning its catalytic activity have been recently reported. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Here we report a rigorous enzymatic analysis demonstrating that the HD-PTP protein does not harbor tyrosine phosphatase or lipid phosphatase activity using the highly sensitive DiFMUP substrate and a panel of different phosphatidylinositol phosphates. We found that HD-PTP tyrosine phosphatase inactivity is caused by an evolutionary conserved amino acid divergence of a key residue located in the HD-PTP phosphatase domain since its back mutation is sufficient to restore the HD-PTP tyrosine phosphatase activity. Moreover, in agreement with a tumor suppressor activity, HD-PTP expression leads to colony growth reduction in human cancer cell lines, independently of its catalytic PTP activity status. CONCLUSION: In summary, we demonstrate that HD-PTP is a catalytically inactive protein tyrosine phosphatase. As such, we identify one residue involved in its inactivation and show that its colony growth reduction activity is independent of its PTP activity status in human cancer cell lines.
The much-publicised halting of the joint Merck/HIV Vaccine Trials Network phase IIB candidate HIV-1 vaccine trial in 2007 has led to an unprecedented degree of discussion and introspection amongst the HIV research community. In this commentary, we will summarise the lessons learned from the trial and examine the current state of HIV vaccine research.
Chronic inflammation is known to occur in the brains of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients, including the presence of activated microglia close to amyloid plaques. We utilised real time autoradiography and immunohistochemistry to investigate microglial activation and the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PPARgamma agonists in the Thy-1 APP695swe/Thy-1 PS-1.M146V (TASTPM) overexpressing transgenic mouse model of AD. An age dependent increase in specific [3H](R)-PK11195 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR)/translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) was observed in the cortex of TASTPM mice compared to wild type mice, indicative of microglial activation. This was consistent with immunohistochemical data showing age-dependent increases in CD68 immunoreactivity co-localised with amyloid beta (Abeta) deposits. In 10 month old TASTPM mice, pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) and ciglitazone (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced [3H](R)-PK11195 and [3H]DPA-713 binding in cortex and hippocampus, indicative of reduced microglial activation. In AD brain, significant [3H](R)-PK11195 and [3H]DPA-713 binding was observed across all stages of the disease. These results support the use of PBR/TSPO autoradiography in TASTPM mice as a functional readout of microglial activation to assess anti-inflammatory drugs prior to evaluation in AD patients.
Cellular interactions between activated microglia and degenerating neurons in in vivo models of Parkinson's disease are not well defined. This time course study assesses the dynamics of morphological and immunophenotypic properties of activated microglia in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease. Neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) was induced by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle. Activated microglia, identified using monoclonal antibodies: clone of antibody that detects major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens (OX6) for MHC class II, clone of antibody that detects cell surface antigen-cluster of differentiation 11b - anti-complement receptor 3, a marker for complement receptor 3 and CD 68 for phagocytic activity. Activation of microglia in the lesioned SNc was rapid with cells possessing amoeboid or ramified morphology appeared on day 1, whilst antibody clone that detects macrophage-myeloid associated antigen immunoreactivity was observed at day 3 post-lesion when there was no apparent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ve dopaminergic (DA) SNc neurons. Thereafter, OX6 and antibody clone that detects macrophage-myeloid associated antigen activated microglia selectively adhered to degenerating axons, dendrites and apoptotic (caspase 3+ve) DA neurons in the SNc were observed at day 7. This was followed by progressive loss of TH+ve SNc neurons, with the peak of TH+ve cell loss (51%) being observed at day 9. This study suggests that activation of microglia precedes DA neuronal cell loss and neurons undergoing degeneration may be phagocytosed prematurely by phagocytic microglia.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 19 (17), pp. 4999-5003. | Read more2009. Discovery of a novel azepine series of potent and selective 5-HT2C agonists as potential treatments for urinary incontinence
Novel imidazole frameworks have been identified as potent partial agonists of the alpha(1A) adrenergic receptor, with good selectivity over the alpha(1B), alpha(1D) and alpha(2A) receptor sub-types. Nitrile 28 possessed attractive CNS drug-like properties with good membrane permeability and no P-pg mediated efflux. 28 also possessed excellent solubility, metabolic stability and wide ligand selectivity.
A growing number of screening applications require the automated monitoring of cell populations in a high-throughput, high-content environment. These applications depend on accurate cell tracking of individual cells that display various behaviors including mitosis, occlusion, rapid movement, and entering and leaving the field of view. We present a tracking approach that explicitly models each of these behaviors and represents the association costs in a graph-theoretic minimum-cost flow framework. We show how to extend the minimum-cost flow algorithm to account for mitosis and merging events by coupling particular edges. We applied the algorithm to nearly 6,000 images of 400,000 cells representing 32,000 tracks taken from five separate datasets, each composed of multiple wells. Our algorithm is able to track cells and detect different cell behaviors with an accuracy of over 99%.
In this work we propose a dynamic scene model to provide information about the presence of salient motion in the scene, and that could be used for focusing the attention of a pan/tilt/zoom camera, or for background modeling purposes. Rather than proposing a set of saliency detectors, we define what we mean by salient motion, and propose a precise model for it. Detecting salient motion becomes equivalent to detecting a model change. We derive optimal online procedures to solve this problem, which enable a very fast implementation. Promising results show that our model can effectively detect salient motion even in severely cluttered scenes, and while a camera is panning and tilting. © 2009 IEEE.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 5636 LNCS pp. 374-385. | Citations: 3 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more2009. Coupled Minimum-Cost Flow Cell Tracking
A growing number of screening applications require the automated monitoring of cell populations in a high-throughput, high-content environment. These applications depend on accurate cell tracking of individual cells that display various behaviors including mitosis, occlusion, rapid movement, and entering and leaving the field of view. We present a tracking approach that explicitly models each of these behaviors and represents the association costs in a graph-theoretic minimum-cost flow framework. We show how to extend the minimum-cost flow algorithm to account for mitosis and merging events by coupling particular edges. We applied the algorithm to nearly 6,000 images of 400,000 cells representing 32,000 tracks taken from five separate datasets, each composed of multiple wells.Our algorithm is able to track cells and detect different cell behaviors with an accuracy of over 99%. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, and prior attempts to develop genomic-based classification for HCC have yielded highly divergent results, indicating difficulty in identifying unified molecular anatomy. We performed a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in data sets from eight independent patient cohorts across the world. In addition, aiming to establish the real world applicability of a classification system, we profiled 118 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an additional patient cohort. A total of 603 patients were analyzed, representing the major etiologies of HCC (hepatitis B and C) collected from Western and Eastern countries. We observed three robust HCC subclasses (termed S1, S2, and S3), each correlated with clinical parameters such as tumor size, extent of cellular differentiation, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. An analysis of the components of the signatures indicated that S1 reflected aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway, S2 was characterized by proliferation as well as MYC and AKT activation, and S3 was associated with hepatocyte differentiation. Functional studies indicated that the WNT pathway activation signature characteristic of S1 tumors was not simply the result of beta-catenin mutation but rather was the result of transforming growth factor-beta activation, thus representing a new mechanism of WNT pathway activation in HCC. These experiments establish the first consensus classification framework for HCC based on gene expression profiles and highlight the power of integrating multiple data sets to define a robust molecular taxonomy of the disease.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac glycosides are Na(+)/K(+)-pump inhibitors widely used to treat heart failure. They are also highly cytotoxic, and studies have suggested specific anti-tumor activity leading to current clinical trials in cancer patients. However, a definitive demonstration of this putative anti-cancer activity and the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an unbiased transcriptomics approach, we found that cardiac glycosides inhibit general protein synthesis. Protein synthesis inhibition and cytotoxicity were not specific for cancer cells as they were observed in both primary and cancer cell lines. These effects were dependent on the Na(+)/K(+)-pump as they were rescued by expression of a cardiac glycoside-resistant Na(+)/K(+)-pump. Unlike human cells, rodent cells are largely resistant to cardiac glycosides in vitro and mice were found to tolerate extremely high levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The physiological difference between human and mouse explains the previously observed sensitivity of human cancer cells in mouse xenograft experiments. Thus, published mouse xenograft models used to support anti-tumor activity for these drugs require reevaluation. Our finding that cardiac glycosides inhibit protein synthesis provides a mechanism for the cytotoxicity of CGs and raises concerns about ongoing clinical trials to test CGs as anti-cancer agents in humans.
Retrovirology, 6 (Suppl 3), pp. P410-P410. | Read more2009. P17-28 LB. The antiviral efficacy of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells to a conserved epitope is heavily dependent on the infecting HIV-1 isolate.
This chapter presents a historical study on erythropoietin. It was only a few years after the concept of hormone was first suggested by Henri Brown-Sequard in 1889 that the idea of hormonal regulation of erythropoiesis was first formulated by Carnot and Deflandre in 1906. Early erythropoietin research was hampered by the low concentration of the hormone in the fluids and tissues to be studied, particularly in the basal state, which made its detection and quantitation unreliable. The first assays of erythropoietin activity utilized the rate of incorporation of radioactive iron-59 into hemoglobin as a measure of erythropoiesis in starved rats that had been injected with the material under test. Armed with the early bioassays of erythropoietic activity, researchers next turned their attention to the biochemical purification of erythropoietin. Early attempts at partial purification of erythropoietin from anemic rabbit serum proved remarkably informative. The erythropoietic activity was found to have an electrophoretic mobility similar to alpha-2 globulin, to be heat stable, and to stain for carbohydrate. Erythropoietin was therefore deduced to be a glycoprotein. These studies also showed that erythropoietin contained hexose, hexosamine, and sialic acid and that erythropoietic activity was lost upon removal of neuraminic acid. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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