Publications 2011

David Y, Ternette N, Edelmann MJ, Ziv T, Gayer B, Sertchook R, Dadon Y, Kessler BM, Navon A. 2011. E3 ligases determine ubiquitination site and conjugate type by enforcing specificity on E2 enzymes. J Biol Chem, 286 (51), pp. 44104-44115. | Citations: 33 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have a dominant role in determining which of the seven lysine residues of ubiquitin is used for polyubiquitination. Here we show that tethering of a substrate to an E2 enzyme in the absence of an E3 ubiquitin ligase is sufficient to promote its ubiquitination, whereas the type of the ubiquitin conjugates and the identity of the target lysine on the substrate are promiscuous. In contrast, when an E3 enzyme is introduced, a clear decision between mono- and polyubiquitination is made, and the conjugation type as well as the identity of the target lysine residue on the substrate becomes highly specific. These features of the E3 can be further regulated by auxiliary factors as exemplified by MDMX (Murine Double Minute X). In fact, we show that this interactor reconfigures MDM2-dependent ubiquitination of p53. Based on several model systems, we propose that although interaction with an E2 is sufficient to promote substrate ubiquitination the E3 molds the reaction into a specific, physiologically relevant protein modification.

Altun M, Kramer HB, Willems LI, McDermott JL, Leach CA, Goldenberg SJ, Kumar KGS, Konietzny R, Fischer R, Kogan E et al. 2011. Activity-based chemical proteomics accelerates inhibitor development for deubiquitylating enzymes. Chem Biol, 18 (11), pp. 1401-1412. | Citations: 161 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Converting lead compounds into drug candidates is a crucial step in drug development, requiring early assessment of potency, selectivity, and off-target effects. We have utilized activity-based chemical proteomics to determine the potency and selectivity of deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB) inhibitors in cell culture models. Importantly, we characterized the small molecule PR-619 as a broad-range DUB inhibitor, and P22077 as a USP7 inhibitor with potential for further development as a chemotherapeutic agent in cancer therapy. A striking accumulation of polyubiquitylated proteins was observed after both selective and general inhibition of cellular DUB activity without direct impairment of proteasomal proteolysis. The repertoire of ubiquitylated substrates was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, identifying distinct subsets for general or specific inhibition of DUBs. This enabled identification of previously unknown functional links between USP7 and enzymes involved in DNA repair.

Edelmann MJ, Nicholson B, Kessler BM. 2011. Pharmacological targets in the ubiquitin system offer new ways of treating cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and infectious diseases. Expert Rev Mol Med, 13 pp. e35. | Citations: 65 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Recent advances in the development and discovery of pharmacological interventions within the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have uncovered an enormous potential for possible novel treatments of neurodegenerative disease, cancer, immunological disorder and microbial infection. Interference with proteasome activity, although initially considered unlikely to be exploitable clinically, has already proved to be very effective against haematological malignancies, and more specific derivatives that target subsets of proteasomes are emerging. Recent small-molecule screens have revealed inhibitors against ubiquitin-conjugating and -deconjugating enzymes, many of which have been evaluated for their potential use as therapeutics, either as single agents or in synergy with other drugs. Here, we discuss recent advances in the characterisation of novel UPS modulators (in particular, inhibitors of ubiquitin-conjugating and -deconjugating enzymes) and how they pave the way towards new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of proteotoxic disease, cancer and microbial infection.

Singleton RS, Trudgian DC, Fischer R, Kessler BM, Ratcliffe PJ, Cockman ME. 2011. Quantitative mass spectrometry reveals dynamics of factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-catalyzed hydroxylation Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286 (39), pp. 33784-33794. | Citations: 11 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

The asparaginyl hydroxylase, factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor(HIF), is central to the oxygen-sensing pathway that controls the activity of HIF. Factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH) also catalyzes the hydroxylation of a large set of proteins that share a structural motif termed the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). In vitro studies have defined kinetic properties of FIH with respect to different substrates and have suggested FIH binds more tightly to certain ARD proteins than HIF and that ARD hydroxylation may have a lower K m value for oxygen than HIF hydroxylation. However, regulation of asparaginyl hydroxylation on ARD substrates has not been systematically studied in cells. To address these questions, we employed isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to monitor the accrual, inhibition, and decay of hydroxylation under defined conditions. Under the conditions examined, hydroxylation was not reversed but increased as the protein aged. The extent of hydroxylation on ARD proteins was increased by addition of ascorbate, whereas iron and 2-oxoglutarate supplementation had no significant effect. Despite preferential binding of FIH to ARD substrates in vitro, when expressed as fusion proteins in cells, hydroxylation was found to be more complete on HIF polypeptides compared with sites within the ARD. Furthermore, comparative studies of hydroxylation in graded hypoxia revealed ARD hydroxylation was suppressed in a site-specific manner and was as sensitive as HIF to hypoxic inhibition. These findings suggest that asparaginyl hydroxylation of HIF-1 and ARD proteins is regulated by oxygen over a similar range, potentially tuning the HIF transcriptional response through competition between the two types of substrate. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Adam J, Hatipoglu E, O'Flaherty L, Ternette N, Sahgal N, Lockstone H, Baban D, Nye E, Stamp GW, Wolhuter K et al. 2011. Renal cyst formation in Fh1-deficient mice is independent of the Hif/Phd pathway: roles for fumarate in KEAP1 succination and Nrf2 signaling. Cancer Cell, 20 (4), pp. 524-537. | Citations: 278 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

The Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) is a human tumor suppressor whose inactivation is associated with the development of leiomyomata, renal cysts, and tumors. It has been proposed that activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) by fumarate-mediated inhibition of HIF prolyl hydroxylases drives oncogenesis. Using a mouse model, we provide genetic evidence that Fh1-associated cyst formation is Hif independent, as is striking upregulation of antioxidant signaling pathways revealed by gene expression profiling. Mechanistic analysis revealed that fumarate modifies cysteine residues within the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), abrogating its ability to repress the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response pathway, suggesting a role for Nrf2 dysregulation in FH-associated cysts and tumors.

Vesterlund M, Zadjali F, Persson T, Nielsen ML, Kessler BM, Norstedt G, Flores-Morales A. 2011. The SOCS2 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates growth hormone receptor levels PLoS ONE, 6 (9), | Citations: 37 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Growth Hormone is essential for the regulation of growth and the homeostatic control of intermediary metabolism. GH actions are mediated by the Growth Hormone Receptor; a member of the cytokine receptor super family that signals chiefly through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway. Target tissue responsiveness to GH is under regulatory control to avoid excessive and off-target effects upon GHR activation. The suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS) is a key regulator of GHR sensitivity. This is clearly shown in mice where the SOCS2 gene has been inactivated, which show 30-40% increase in body length, a phenotype that is dependent on endogenous GH secretion. SOCS2 is a GH-stimulated, STAT5b-regulated gene that acts in a negative feedback loop to downregulate GHR signalling. Since the biochemical basis for these actions is poorly understood, we studied the molecular function of SOCS2. We demonstrated that SOCS2 is part of a multimeric complex with intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutational analysis shows that the interaction with Elongin B/C controls SOCS2 protein turnover and affects its molecular activity. Increased GHR levels were observed in livers from SOCS2 -/- mice and in the absence of SOCS2 in in vitro experiments. We showed that SOCS2 regulates cellular GHR levels through direct ubiquitination and in a proteasomally dependent manner. We also confirmed the importance of the SOCS-box for the proper function of SOCS2. Finally, we identified two phosphotyrosine residues in the GHR to be responsible for the interaction with SOCS2, but only Y487 to account for the effects of SOCS2. The demonstration that SOCS2 is an ubiquitin ligase for the GHR unveils the molecular basis for its physiological actions. © 2011 Vesterlund et al.

Vesterlund M, Zadjali F, Persson T, Nielsen ML, Kessler BM, Norstedt G, Flores-Morales A. 2011. The SOCS2 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates growth hormone receptor levels. PLoS One, 6 (9), pp. e25358. | Citations: 34 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

Growth Hormone is essential for the regulation of growth and the homeostatic control of intermediary metabolism. GH actions are mediated by the Growth Hormone Receptor; a member of the cytokine receptor super family that signals chiefly through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway. Target tissue responsiveness to GH is under regulatory control to avoid excessive and off-target effects upon GHR activation. The suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS) is a key regulator of GHR sensitivity. This is clearly shown in mice where the SOCS2 gene has been inactivated, which show 30-40% increase in body length, a phenotype that is dependent on endogenous GH secretion. SOCS2 is a GH-stimulated, STAT5b-regulated gene that acts in a negative feedback loop to downregulate GHR signalling. Since the biochemical basis for these actions is poorly understood, we studied the molecular function of SOCS2. We demonstrated that SOCS2 is part of a multimeric complex with intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutational analysis shows that the interaction with Elongin B/C controls SOCS2 protein turnover and affects its molecular activity. Increased GHR levels were observed in livers from SOCS2⁻/⁻ mice and in the absence of SOCS2 in in vitro experiments. We showed that SOCS2 regulates cellular GHR levels through direct ubiquitination and in a proteasomally dependent manner. We also confirmed the importance of the SOCS-box for the proper function of SOCS2. Finally, we identified two phosphotyrosine residues in the GHR to be responsible for the interaction with SOCS2, but only Y487 to account for the effects of SOCS2. The demonstration that SOCS2 is an ubiquitin ligase for the GHR unveils the molecular basis for its physiological actions.

Ternette N, Wright C, Kramer HB, Altun M, Kessler BM. 2011. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals regulation of interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) and 5'-3'-exoribonuclease 2 (XRN2) during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Virol J, 8 (1), pp. 442. | Citations: 13 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

ABSTRACT: A large quantitative study was carried out to compare the proteome of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infected versus uninfected cells in order to determine novel pathways regulated during viral infection. RSV infected and mock-infected HEp2 cells were lysed and proteins separated by preparative isoelectric focussing using offgel fractionation. Following tryptic digestion, purified peptides were characterized using label-free quantitative expression profiling by nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry with collision energy ramping for all-ion fragmentation (UPLC-MSE). A total of 1352 unique cellular proteins were identified and their abundance compared between infected and non-infected cells. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed regulation of several central cellular metabolic and signalling pathways during infection. Selected proteins that were found regulated in RSV infected cells were screened by quantitative real-time PCR for their regulation on the transcriptional level. Synthesis of interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) and 5'-3'-exoribonuclease 2 (XRN2) mRNAs were found to be highly induced upon RSV infection in a time dependent manner. Accordingly, IFIT3 protein levels accumulated during the time course of infection. In contrast, little variation was observed in XRN2 protein levels, but different forms were present in infected versus non-infected cells. This suggests a role of these proteins in viral infection, and analysis of their function will shed further light on mechanisms of RNA virus replication and the host cell defence machinery.

Bardella C, El-Bahrawy M, Frizzell N, Adam J, Ternette N, Hatipoglu E, Howarth K, O'Flaherty L, Roberts I, Turner G et al. 2011. Aberrant succination of proteins in fumarate hydratase-deficient mice and HLRCC patients is a robust biomarker of mutation status. J Pathol, 225 (1), pp. 4-11. | Citations: 121 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Germline mutations in the FH gene encoding the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome. FH-deficient cells and tissues accumulate high levels of fumarate, which may act as an oncometabolite and contribute to tumourigenesis. A recently proposed role for fumarate in the covalent modification of cysteine residues to S-(2-succinyl) cysteine (2SC) (termed protein succination) prompted us to assess 2SC levels in our existing models of HLRCC. Herein, using a previously characterized antibody against 2SC, we show that genetic ablation of FH causes high levels of protein succination. We next hypothesized that immunohistochemistry for 2SC would serve as a metabolic biomarker for the in situ detection of FH-deficient tissues. Robust detection of 2SC was observed in Fh1 (murine FH)-deficient renal cysts and in a retrospective series of HLRCC tumours (n = 16) with established FH mutations. Importantly, 2SC was undetectable in normal tissues (n = 200) and tumour types not associated with HLRCC (n = 1342). In a prospective evaluation of cases referred for genetic testing for HLRCC, the presence of 2SC-modified proteins (2SCP) correctly predicted genetic alterations in FH in every case. In two series of unselected type II papillary renal cancer (PRCC), prospectively analysed by 2SCP staining followed by genetic analysis, the biomarker accurately identified previously unsuspected FH mutations (2/33 and 1/36). The investigation of whether metabolites in other tumour types produce protein modification signature(s) that can be assayed using similar strategies will be of interest in future studies of cancer.

Wright CA, Howles S, Trudgian DC, Kessler BM, Reynard JM, Noble JG, Hamdy FC, Turney BW. 2011. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins influencing urolithiasis. Mol Cell Proteomics, 10 (8), pp. M110.005686. | Citations: 20 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Urinary proteins have been implicated as inhibitors of kidney stone formation (urolithiasis). As a proximal fluid, prefiltered by the kidneys, urine is an attractive biofluid for proteomic analysis in urologic conditions. However, it is necessary to correct for variations in urinary concentration. In our study, individual urine samples were normalized for this variation by using a total protein to creatinine ratio. Pooled urine samples were compared in two independent experiments. Differences between the urinary proteome of stone formers and nonstone-forming controls were characterized and quantified using label-free nano-ultraperformance liquid chromatography high/low collision energy switching analysis. There were 1063 proteins identified, of which 367 were unique to the stone former groups, 408 proteins were unique to the control pools, and 288 proteins were identified for comparative quantification. Proteins found to be unique in stone-formers were involved in carbohydrate metabolism pathways and associated with disease states. Thirty-four proteins demonstrated a consistent >twofold change between stone formers and controls. For ceruloplasmin, one of the proteins was shown to be more than twofold up-regulated in the stone-former pools, this observation was validated in individuals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, in vitro crystallization assays demonstrated ceruloplasmin had a dose-dependent increase on calcium oxalate crystal formation. Taken together, these results may suggest a functional role for ceruloplasmin in urolithiasis.

Singleton RS, Trudgian DC, Fischer R, Kessler BM, Ratcliffe PJ, Cockman ME. 2011. Quantitative mass spectrometry reveals dynamics of factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-catalyzed hydroxylation. J Biol Chem, 286 (39), pp. 33784-33794. | Citations: 11 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

The asparaginyl hydroxylase, factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is central to the oxygen-sensing pathway that controls the activity of HIF. Factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH) also catalyzes the hydroxylation of a large set of proteins that share a structural motif termed the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). In vitro studies have defined kinetic properties of FIH with respect to different substrates and have suggested FIH binds more tightly to certain ARD proteins than HIF and that ARD hydroxylation may have a lower K(m) value for oxygen than HIF hydroxylation. However, regulation of asparaginyl hydroxylation on ARD substrates has not been systematically studied in cells. To address these questions, we employed isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to monitor the accrual, inhibition, and decay of hydroxylation under defined conditions. Under the conditions examined, hydroxylation was not reversed but increased as the protein aged. The extent of hydroxylation on ARD proteins was increased by addition of ascorbate, whereas iron and 2-oxoglutarate supplementation had no significant effect. Despite preferential binding of FIH to ARD substrates in vitro, when expressed as fusion proteins in cells, hydroxylation was found to be more complete on HIF polypeptides compared with sites within the ARD. Furthermore, comparative studies of hydroxylation in graded hypoxia revealed ARD hydroxylation was suppressed in a site-specific manner and was as sensitive as HIF to hypoxic inhibition. These findings suggest that asparaginyl hydroxylation of HIF-1 and ARD proteins is regulated by oxygen over a similar range, potentially tuning the HIF transcriptional response through competition between the two types of substrate.

Chowdhury R, Flashman E, Mecinović J, Kramer HB, Kessler BM, Frapart YM, Boucher JL, Clifton IJ, McDonough MA, Schofield CJ. 2011. Studies on the reaction of nitric oxide with the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (EGLN1) Journal of Molecular Biology, 410 (2), pp. 268-279. | Citations: 35 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

The hypoxic response in animals is mediated via the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). An oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system is provided by Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases that catalyse the posttranslational hydroxylation of the HIF-α subunit. It is proposed that the activity of the HIF hydroxylases can be regulated by their reaction with nitric oxide. We describe biochemical and biophysical studies on the reaction of prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzyme (PHD) isoform 2 (EGLN1) with nitric oxide and a nitric oxide transfer reagent. The combined results reveal the potential for the catalytic domain of PHD2 to react with nitric oxide both at its Fe(II) and at cysteine residues. Although the biological significance is unclear, the results suggest that the reaction of PHD2 with nitric oxide has the potential to be complex and are consistent with proposals based on cellular studies that nitric oxide may regulate the hypoxic response by direct reaction with the HIF hydroxylases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Andress EJ, Holic R, Edelmann MJ, Kessler BM, Yu VPCC. 2011. Dia2 controls transcription by mediating assembly of the RSC complex. PLoS One, 6 (6), pp. e21172. | Citations: 4 (European Pubmed Central) | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Dia2 is an F-box protein found in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae. Together with Skp1 and Cul1, Dia2 forms the substrate-determining part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, otherwise known as the SCF. Dia2 has previously been implicated in the control of replication and genome stability via its interaction with the replisome progression complex. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified components of the RSC chromatin remodelling complex as genetic interactors with Dia2, suggesting an additional role for Dia2 in the regulation of transcription. We show that Dia2 is involved in controlling assembly of the RSC complex. RSC belongs to a group of ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodelling complexes that controls the repositioning of nucleosomes. The RSC complex is expressed abundantly and its 17 subunits are recruited to chromatin in response to both transcription activation and repression. In the absence of Dia2, RSC-mediated transcription regulation was impaired, with concomitant abnormalities in nucleosome positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply that Dia2 is required for the correct assembly and function of the RSC complex. Dia2, by controlling the RSC chromatin remodeller, fine-tunes transcription by controlling nucleosome positioning during transcriptional activation and repression.

Kessler BM, Edelmann MJ. 2011. PTMs in Conversation: Activity and Function of Deubiquitinating Enzymes Regulated via Post-Translational Modifications Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 60 (1-2), pp. 21-38. | Citations: 44 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) constitute a diverse protein family and their impact on numerous biological and pathological processes has now been widely appreciated. Many DUB functions have to be tightly controlled within the cell, and this can be achieved in several ways, such as substrate-induced conformational changes, binding to adaptor proteins, proteolytic cleavage, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). This review is focused on the role of PTMs including monoubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation as characterized and putative regulative factors of DUB function. Although this aspect of DUB functionality has not been yet thoroughly studied, PTMs represent a versatile and reversible method of controlling the role of DUBs in biological processes. In several cases PTMs might constitute a feedback mechanism insuring proper functioning of the ubiquitin proteasome system and other DUB-related pathways. © 2011 The Author(s).

Rotili D, Altun M, Kawamura A, Wolf A, Fischer R, Leung IKH, Mackeen MM, Tian Y-M, Ratcliffe PJ, Mai A et al. 2011. A photoreactive small-molecule probe for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenases. Chem Biol, 18 (5), pp. 642-654. | Citations: 36 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent oxygenases have diverse roles in human biology. The inhibition of several 2-OG oxygenases is being targeted for therapeutic intervention, including for cancer, anemia, and ischemic diseases. We report a small-molecule probe for 2-OG oxygenases that employs a hydroxyquinoline template coupled to a photoactivable crosslinking group and an affinity-purification tag. Following studies with recombinant proteins, the probe was shown to crosslink to 2-OG oxygenases in human crude cell extracts, including to proteins at endogenous levels. This approach is useful for inhibitor profiling, as demonstrated by crosslinking to the histone demethylase FBXL11 (KDM2A) in HEK293T nuclear extracts. The results also suggest that small-molecule probes may be suitable for substrate identification studies.

Chowdhury R, Flashman E, Mecinović J, Kramer HB, Kessler BM, Frapart YM, Boucher J-L, Clifton IJ, McDonough MA, Schofield CJ. 2011. Studies on the reaction of nitric oxide with the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (EGLN1). J Mol Biol, 410 (2), pp. 268-279. | Citations: 35 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

The hypoxic response in animals is mediated via the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). An oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system is provided by Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases that catalyse the posttranslational hydroxylation of the HIF-α subunit. It is proposed that the activity of the HIF hydroxylases can be regulated by their reaction with nitric oxide. We describe biochemical and biophysical studies on the reaction of prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzyme (PHD) isoform 2 (EGLN1) with nitric oxide and a nitric oxide transfer reagent. The combined results reveal the potential for the catalytic domain of PHD2 to react with nitric oxide both at its Fe(II) and at cysteine residues. Although the biological significance is unclear, the results suggest that the reaction of PHD2 with nitric oxide has the potential to be complex and are consistent with proposals based on cellular studies that nitric oxide may regulate the hypoxic response by direct reaction with the HIF hydroxylases.

Trudgian DC, Ridlova G, Fischer R, Mackeen MM, Ternette N, Acuto O, Kessler BM, Thomas B. 2011. Comparative evaluation of label-free SINQ normalized spectral index quantitation in the central proteomics facilities pipeline. Proteomics, 11 (14), pp. 2790-2797. | Citations: 76 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

Normalized spectral index quantification was recently presented as an accurate method of label-free quantitation, which improved spectral counting by incorporating the intensities of peptide MS/MS fragment ions into the calculation of protein abundance. We present SINQ, a tool implementing this method within the framework of existing analysis software, our freely available central proteomics facilities pipeline (CPFP). We demonstrate, using data sets of protein standards acquired on a variety of mass spectrometers, that SINQ can rapidly provide useful estimates of the absolute quantity of proteins present in a medium-complexity sample. In addition, relative quantitation of standard proteins spiked into a complex lysate background and run without pre-fractionation produces accurate results at amounts above 1 fmol on column. We compare quantitation performance to various precursor intensity- and identification-based methods, including the normalized spectral abundance factor (NSAF), exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI), MaxQuant, and Progenesis LC-MS. We anticipate that the SINQ tool will be a useful asset for core facilities and individual laboratories that wish to produce quantitative MS data, but lack the necessary manpower to routinely support more complicated software workflows. SINQ is freely available to obtain and use as part of the central proteomics facilities pipeline, which is released under an open-source license.

Ranasinghe SRF, Kramer HB, Wright C, Kessler BM, di Gleria K, Zhang Y, Gillespie GM, Blais M-E, Culshaw A, Pichulik T et al. 2011. The Antiviral Efficacy of HIV-Specific CD8(+) T-Cells to a Conserved Epitope Is Heavily Dependent on the Infecting HIV-1 Isolate PLOS PATHOGENS, 7 (5), | Citations: 14 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

A major challenge to developing a successful HIV vaccine is the vast diversity of viral sequences, yet it is generally assumed that an epitope conserved between different strains will be recognised by responding T-cells. We examined whether an invariant HLA-B8 restricted Nef90-97epitope FL8 shared between five high titre viruses and eight recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Nef from different viral isolates (clades A-H) could activate antiviral activity in FL8-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Surprisingly, despite epitope conservation, we found that CTL antiviral efficacy is dependent on the infecting viral isolate. Only 23% of Nef proteins, expressed by HIV-1 isolates or as recombinant vaccinia-Nef, were optimally recognised by CTL. Recognition of the HIV-1 isolates by CTL was independent of clade-grouping but correlated with virus-specific polymorphisms in the epitope flanking region, which altered immunoproteasomal cleavage resulting in enhanced or impaired epitope generation. The finding that the majority of virus isolates failed to present this conserved epitope highlights the importance of viral variance in CTL epitope flanking regions on the efficiency of antigen processing, which has been considerably underestimated previously. This has important implications for future vaccine design strategies since efficient presentation of conserved viral epitopes is necessary to promote enhanced anti-viral immune responses. © 2011 Ranasinghe et al.

Kochan G, Krojer T, Harvey D, Fischer R, Chen L, Vollmar M, von Delft F, Kavanagh KL, Brown MA, Bowness P et al. 2011. Crystal structures of the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase-1 (ERAP1) reveal the molecular basis for N-terminal peptide trimming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108 (19), pp. 7745-7750. | Citations: 127 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Endoplasmatic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in trimming of peptides to an optimal length for presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Polymorphisms in ERAP1 have been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriasis, and subsequent in vitro enzyme studies suggest distinct catalytic properties of ERAP1 variants. To understand structure-activity relationships of this enzyme we determined crystal structures in open and closed states of human ERAP1, which provide the first snapshots along a catalytic path. ERAP1 is a zinc-metallopeptidase with typical H-E-X-X-H-(X)(18)-E zinc binding and G-A-M-E-N motifs characteristic for members of the gluzincin protease family. The structures reveal extensive domain movements, including an active site closure as well as three different open conformations, thus providing insights into the catalytic cycle. A K(528)R mutant strongly associated with AS in GWAS studies shows significantly altered peptide processing characteristics, which are possibly related to impaired interdomain interactions.

Kessler BM, Edelmann MJ. 2011. PTMs in conversation: activity and function of deubiquitinating enzymes regulated via post-translational modifications. Cell Biochem Biophys, 60 (1-2), pp. 21-38. | Citations: 41 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) constitute a diverse protein family and their impact on numerous biological and pathological processes has now been widely appreciated. Many DUB functions have to be tightly controlled within the cell, and this can be achieved in several ways, such as substrate-induced conformational changes, binding to adaptor proteins, proteolytic cleavage, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). This review is focused on the role of PTMs including monoubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation as characterized and putative regulative factors of DUB function. Although this aspect of DUB functionality has not been yet thoroughly studied, PTMs represent a versatile and reversible method of controlling the role of DUBs in biological processes. In several cases PTMs might constitute a feedback mechanism insuring proper functioning of the ubiquitin proteasome system and other DUB-related pathways.

El-Kasti MM, Wright C, Fye HKS, Roseman F, Kessler BM, Becker CM. 2011. Urinary peptide profiling identifies a panel of putative biomarkers for diagnosing and staging endometriosis Fertility and Sterility, 95 (4), | Citations: 26 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Objective: To identify a potential diagnostic endometriosis marker using matrix-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)-based urinary proteomics. Design: Prospective randomized pilot study. Setting: University hospital, tertiary referral center for endometriosis. Patient(s): 53 women undergoing laparoscopic surgery for pain and/or infertility comprising 30 women without endometriosis and 23 with endometriosis. Intervention(s): Laparoscopy and urine specimens. Main Outcome Measure(s): Urinary peptide profiles. Result(s): We observed distinct patterns of peptide profiles in the urine samples of women presenting with typical clinical symptoms of endometriosis. Six statistically significant putative peptide markers were identified (four during the periovulatory phase and two during the luteal phase) by comparing controls with moderate/severe endometriosis patients. The periovulatory peptide mass of 1,767.1 Da and the luteal peptide mass of 1,824.3 Da both showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 85% and 71%, respectively. Also detected were seven peptide markers (two during the periovulatory phase and five during the luteal phase) by comparing the urinary peptide profiles of patients with minimal/mild to moderate/severe endometriosis. The periovulatory peptide mass of 3,280.9 Da and the luteal peptide mass of 1,933.8 Da showed a sensitivity of 82% and 75% and a specificity of 88% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion(s): Urinary proteomic analysis may provide a novel method of diagnosing and staging endometriosis. © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc.

Parsons JL, Dianova II, Khoronenkova SV, Edelmann MJ, Kessler BM, Dianov GL. 2011. USP47 is a deubiquitylating enzyme that regulates base excision repair by controlling steady-state levels of DNA polymerase β. Mol Cell, 41 (5), pp. 609-615. | Citations: 54 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

DNA base excision repair (BER) is an essential cellular process required for genome stability, and misregulation of BER is linked to premature aging, increased rate of mutagenesis, and cancer. We have now identified the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-specific protease USP47 as the major enzyme involved in deubiquitylation of the key BER DNA polymerase (Pol β) and demonstrate that USP47 is required for stability of newly synthesized cytoplasmic Pol β that is used as a source for nuclear Pol β involved in DNA repair. We further show that knockdown of USP47 causes an increased level of ubiquitylated Pol β, decreased levels of Pol β, and a subsequent deficiency in BER, leading to accumulation of DNA strand breaks and decreased cell viability in response to DNA damage. Taken together, these data demonstrate an important role for USP47 in regulating DNA repair and maintaining genome integrity.

Tian Y-M, Yeoh KK, Lee MK, Eriksson T, Kessler BM, Kramer HB, Edelmann MJ, Willam C, Pugh CW, Schofield CJ, Ratcliffe PJ. 2011. Differential sensitivity of hypoxia inducible factor hydroxylation sites to hypoxia and hydroxylase inhibitors. J Biol Chem, 286 (15), pp. 13041-13051. | Citations: 93 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is regulated by dual pathways involving oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of its α-subunits. Prolyl hydroxylation at two sites within a central degradation domain promotes association of HIF-α with the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitin E3 ligase and destruction by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Asparaginyl hydroxylation blocks the recruitment of p300/CBP co-activators to a C-terminal activation domain in HIF-α. These hydroxylations are catalyzed by members of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) oxygenase family. Activity of the enzymes is suppressed by hypoxia, increasing both the abundance and activity of the HIF transcriptional complex. We have used hydroxy residue-specific antibodies to compare and contrast the regulation of each site of prolyl hydroxylation (Pro(402), Pro(564)) with that of asparaginyl hydroxylation (Asn(803)) in human HIF-1α. Our findings reveal striking differences in the sensitivity of these hydroxylations to hypoxia and to different inhibitor types of 2-OG oxygenases. Hydroxylation at the three sites in endogenous human HIF-1α proteins was suppressed by hypoxia in the order Pro(402) > Pro(564) > Asn(803). In contrast to some predictions from in vitro studies, prolyl hydroxylation was substantially more sensitive than asparaginyl hydroxylation to inhibition by iron chelators and transition metal ions; studies of a range of different small molecule 2-OG analogues demonstrated the feasibility of selectively inhibiting either prolyl or asparaginyl hydroxylation within cells.

Lee SE, Elphick LM, Kramer HB, Jones AME, Child ES, Anderson AA, Bonnac L, Suwaki N, Kessler BM, Gouverneur V, Mann DJ. 2011. The chemoselective one-step alkylation and isolation of thiophosphorylated cdk2 substrates in the presence of native cysteine. Chembiochem, 12 (4), pp. 633-640. | Citations: 8 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

The elucidation of signalling pathways relies heavily upon the identification of protein kinase substrates. Recent investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of chemical genetics using ATP analogues and modified protein kinases for specific substrate labelling. Here we combine N(6) -(cyclohexyl)ATPγS with an analogue-sensitive cdk2 variant to thiophosphorylate its substrates and demonstrate a pH-dependent, chemoselective, one-step alkylation to facilitate the detection or isolation of thiophosphorylated peptides.

Yang M, Chowdhury R, Ge W, Hamed RB, McDonough MA, Claridge TDW, Kessler BM, Cockman ME, Ratcliffe PJ, Schofield CJ. 2011. Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyses the post-translational hydroxylation of histidinyl residues within ankyrin repeat domains. FEBS J, 278 (7), pp. 1086-1097. | Citations: 46 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) is an Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that acts as a negative regulator of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by catalysing β-hydroxylation of an asparaginyl residue in its C-terminal transcriptional activation domain (CAD). In addition to the hypoxia-inducible factor C-terminal transcriptional activation domain (HIF-CAD), FIH also catalyses asparaginyl hydroxylation of many ankyrin repeat domain-containing proteins, revealing a broad sequence selectivity. However, there are few reports on the selectivity of FIH for the hydroxylation of specific residues. Here, we report that histidinyl residues within the ankyrin repeat domain of tankyrase-2 can be hydroxylated by FIH. NMR and crystallographic analyses show that the histidinyl hydroxylation occurs at the β-position. The results further expand the scope of FIH-catalysed hydroxylations.

El-Kasti MM, Wright C, Fye HKS, Roseman F, Kessler BM, Becker CM. 2011. Urinary peptide profiling identifies a panel of putative biomarkers for diagnosing and staging endometriosis. Fertil Steril, 95 (4), pp. 1261-6.e1-6. | Citations: 18 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: To identify a potential diagnostic endometriosis marker using matrix-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)-based urinary proteomics. DESIGN: Prospective randomized pilot study. SETTING: University hospital, tertiary referral center for endometriosis. PATIENT(S): 53 women undergoing laparoscopic surgery for pain and/or infertility comprising 30 women without endometriosis and 23 with endometriosis. INTERVENTION(S): Laparoscopy and urine specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Urinary peptide profiles. RESULT(S): We observed distinct patterns of peptide profiles in the urine samples of women presenting with typical clinical symptoms of endometriosis. Six statistically significant putative peptide markers were identified (four during the periovulatory phase and two during the luteal phase) by comparing controls with moderate/severe endometriosis patients. The periovulatory peptide mass of 1,767.1 Da and the luteal peptide mass of 1,824.3 Da both showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 85% and 71%, respectively. Also detected were seven peptide markers (two during the periovulatory phase and five during the luteal phase) by comparing the urinary peptide profiles of patients with minimal/mild to moderate/severe endometriosis. The periovulatory peptide mass of 3,280.9 Da and the luteal peptide mass of 1,933.8 Da showed a sensitivity of 82% and 75% and a specificity of 88% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Urinary proteomic analysis may provide a novel method of diagnosing and staging endometriosis.

Yang M, Ge W, Chowdhury R, Claridge TDW, Kramer HB, Schmierer B, McDonough MA, Gong L, Kessler BM, Ratcliffe PJ et al. 2011. Asparagine and aspartate hydroxylation of the cytoskeletal ankyrin family is catalyzed by factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor. J Biol Chem, 286 (9), pp. 7648-7660. | Citations: 40 (Scopus) | Show Abstract | Read more

Factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) catalyzes the β-hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal transcriptional activation domain of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a modification that negatively regulates HIF transcriptional activity. FIH also catalyzes the hydroxylation of highly conserved Asn residues within the ubiquitous ankyrin repeat domain (ARD)-containing proteins. Hydroxylation has been shown to stabilize localized regions of the ARD fold in the case of a three-repeat consensus ankyrin protein, but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated for the extensive naturally occurring ARDs. Here we report that the cytoskeletal ankyrin family are substrates for FIH-catalyzed hydroxylations. We show that the ARD of ankyrinR is multiply hydroxylated by FIH both in vitro and in endogenous proteins purified from human and mouse erythrocytes. Hydroxylation of the D34 region of ankyrinR ARD (ankyrin repeats 13-24) increases its conformational stability and leads to a reduction in its interaction with the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (CDB3), demonstrating the potential for FIH-catalyzed hydroxylation to modulate protein-protein interactions. Unexpectedly we found that aspartate residues in ankyrinR and ankyrinB are hydroxylated and that FIH-catalyzed aspartate hydroxylation also occurs in other naturally occurring AR sequences. The crystal structure of an FIH variant in complex with an Asp-substrate peptide together with NMR analyses of the hydroxylation product identifies the 3S regio- and stereoselectivity of the FIH-catalyzed Asp hydroxylation, revealing a previously unprecedented posttranslational modification.

Rotili D, Altun M, Hamed RB, Loenarz C, Thalhammer A, Hopkinson RJ, Tian Y-M, Ratcliffe PJ, Mai A, Kessler BM, Schofield CJ. 2011. Photoactivable peptides for identifying enzyme-substrate and protein-protein interactions. Chem Commun (Camb), 47 (5), pp. 1488-1490. | Citations: 5 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

Photoactivated cross-linking of peptides to proteins is a useful strategy for identifying enzyme-substrate and protein-protein interactions in cell lysates as demonstrated by studies on the human hypoxia inducible factor system.

Carr SM, Munro S, Kessler B, Oppermann U, La Thangue NB. 2011. Interplay between lysine methylation and Cdk phosphorylation in growth control by the retinoblastoma protein. EMBO J, 30 (2), pp. 317-327. | Citations: 57 (Web of Science Lite) | Show Abstract | Read more

As a critical target for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (pRb) controls early cell cycle progression. We report here a new type of regulation that influences Cdk recognition and phosphorylation of substrate proteins, mediated through the targeted methylation of a critical lysine residue in the Cdk substrate recognition site. In pRb, lysine (K) 810 represents the essential and conserved basic residue (SPXK) required for cyclin/Cdk recognition and phosphorylation. Methylation of K810 by the methyltransferase Set7/9 impedes binding of Cdk and thereby prevents subsequent phosphorylation of the associated serine (S) residue, retaining pRb in the hypophosphorylated growth-suppressing state. Methylation of K810 is under DNA damage control, and methylated K810 impacts on phosphorylation at sites throughout the pRb protein. Set7/9 is required for efficient cell cycle arrest, and significantly, a mutant derivative of pRb that cannot be methylated at K810 exhibits compromised cell cycle arrest. Thus, the regulation of phosphorylation by Cdks reflects the combined interplay with methylation events, and more generally the targeted methylation of a lysine residue within a Cdk-consensus site in pRb represents an important point of control in cell cycle progression.

Ranasinghe SRF, Kramer HB, Wright C, Kessler BM, di Gleria K, Zhang Y, Gillespie GM, Blais M-E, Culshaw A, Pichulik T et al. 2011. The antiviral efficacy of HIV-specific CD8⁺ T-cells to a conserved epitope is heavily dependent on the infecting HIV-1 isolate. PLoS Pathog, 7 (5), pp. e1001341. | Citations: 15 (European Pubmed Central) | Show Abstract | Read more

A major challenge to developing a successful HIV vaccine is the vast diversity of viral sequences, yet it is generally assumed that an epitope conserved between different strains will be recognised by responding T-cells. We examined whether an invariant HLA-B8 restricted Nef₉₀₋₉₇ epitope FL8 shared between five high titre viruses and eight recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Nef from different viral isolates (clades A-H) could activate antiviral activity in FL8-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Surprisingly, despite epitope conservation, we found that CTL antiviral efficacy is dependent on the infecting viral isolate. Only 23% of Nef proteins, expressed by HIV-1 isolates or as recombinant vaccinia-Nef, were optimally recognised by CTL. Recognition of the HIV-1 isolates by CTL was independent of clade-grouping but correlated with virus-specific polymorphisms in the epitope flanking region, which altered immunoproteasomal cleavage resulting in enhanced or impaired epitope generation. The finding that the majority of virus isolates failed to present this conserved epitope highlights the importance of viral variance in CTL epitope flanking regions on the efficiency of antigen processing, which has been considerably underestimated previously. This has important implications for future vaccine design strategies since efficient presentation of conserved viral epitopes is necessary to promote enhanced anti-viral immune responses.

Total publications on this page: 30

Total citations for publications on this page: 1558