© 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Avian eggshell survives well in alkaline and neutral soils, but its potential as an archaeological resource remains largely unexplored, mainly due to difficulties in its identification. Here we exploit the release of novel bird genomes and, for the first time on eggshell, use MALDI-ToF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight) mass spectrometry in combination with peptide sequencing by LC-MS/MS. The eggshell proteome is revealed as unexpectedly complex, with 5755 proteins identified for a reference collection comprising 23 bird species. We determined 782 m/z markers useful for eggshell identification, 583 of which could be assigned to known eggshell peptide sequences. These were used to identify eggshell fragments recovered from a medieval site at Freeschool Lane, Leicester. We discuss the specificity of the peptide markers and highlight the importance of assessing the level of taxonomic identification achievable for archaeological interpretation.
OBJECTIVE: In addition to the long-established link with smoking, periodontitis (PD) is a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism by which PD could induce antibodies to citrullinated peptides (ACPAs), by examining the antibody response to a novel citrullinated peptide of cytokeratin 13 (CK-13) identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and comparing the response to 4 other citrullinated peptides in patients with RA who were well-characterized for PD and smoking. METHODS: The citrullinomes of GCF and periodontal tissue from patients with PD were mapped by mass spectrometry. ACPAs of CK13 (cCK13), tenascin-C (cTNC5), vimentin (cVIM), α-enolase (CEP-1), and fibrinogen β (cFIBβ) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with RA (n = 287) and patients with osteoarthritis (n = 330), and cross-reactivity was assessed by inhibition assays. RESULTS: A novel citrullinated peptide cCK13-1 (444 TSNASGR-Cit-TSDV-Cit-RP458 ) identified in GCF exhibited elevated antibody responses in RA patients (24%). Anti-cCK13-1 antibody levels correlated with anti-cTNC5 antibody levels, and absorption experiments confirmed this was not due to cross-reactivity. Only anti-cCK13-1 and anti-cTNC5 were associated with antibodies to the periodontal pathogen Prevotella intermedia (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001, respectively), but not with antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis arginine gingipains. Levels of antibodies to CEP-1, cFIBβ, and cVIM correlated with each other, and with smoking and shared epitope risk factors in RA. CONCLUSION: This study identifies 2 groups of ACPA fine specificities associated with different RA risk factors. One is predominantly linked to smoking and shared epitope, and the other links anti-cTNC5 and cCK13-1 to infection with the periodontal pathogen P intermedia.
Macrodomains are conserved protein interaction modules that can be found in all domains of life including in certain viruses. Macrodomains mediate recognition of sequence motifs harboring adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) modifications, thereby regulating a variety of cellular processes. Due to their role in cancer or viral pathogenesis, macrodomains have emerged as potential therapeutic targets, but the unavailability of small molecule inhibitors has hampered target validation studies so far. Here, we describe an efficient screening strategy for identification of small molecule inhibitors that displace ADPR from macrodomains. We report the discovery and characterization of a macrodomain inhibitor, GeA-69, selectively targeting macrodomain 2 (MD2) of PARP14 with low micromolar affinity. Co-crystallization of a GeA-69 analogue with PARP14 MD2 revealed an allosteric binding mechanism explaining its selectivity over other human macrodomains. We show that GeA-69 engages PARP14 MD2 in intact cells and prevents its localization to sites of DNA damage.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the antidote for acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Both intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) NAC formulations are available with equal efficacy. Adverse events from either preparation are rare. We describe a hand compartment syndrome after extravasation of NAC requiring emergent fasciotomy during phase three of treatment for suspected APAP toxicity. Extravasation injuries leading to compartment syndrome are rare. It is unclear whether IV NAC induced a direct tissue-toxic insult, or functioned as a space-occupying lesion to cause a compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome from extravasation of NAC is possible. In cases where IV access is difficult, PO NAC is an alternative.
Ubiquitination controls the stability of most cellular proteins, and its deregulation contributes to human diseases including cancer. Deubiquitinases remove ubiquitin from proteins, and their inhibition can induce the degradation of selected proteins, potentially including otherwise 'undruggable' targets. For example, the inhibition of ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) results in the degradation of the oncogenic E3 ligase MDM2, and leads to re-activation of the tumour suppressor p53 in various cancers. Here we report that two compounds, FT671 and FT827, inhibit USP7 with high affinity and specificity in vitro and within human cells. Co-crystal structures reveal that both compounds target a dynamic pocket near the catalytic centre of the auto-inhibited apo form of USP7, which differs from other USP deubiquitinases. Consistent with USP7 target engagement in cells, FT671 destabilizes USP7 substrates including MDM2, increases levels of p53, and results in the transcription of p53 target genes, induction of the tumour suppressor p21, and inhibition of tumour growth in mice.
Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are of critical importance in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, yet there are few selective, cell-permeable inhibitors or suitable tool compounds for these enzymes. We describe the discovery of a new class of inhibitor that is highly potent towards the histone lysine demethylases KDM2A/7A. A modular synthetic approach was used to explore the chemical space and accelerate the investigation of key structure-activity relationships, leading to the development of a small molecule with around 75-fold selectivity towards KDM2A/7A versus other KDMs, as well as cellular activity at low micromolar concentrations.
The methionine 1 (M1)-specific deubiquitinase (DUB) OTULIN acts as a negative regulator of nuclear factor κB signaling and immune homeostasis. By replacing Gly76 in distal ubiquitin (Ub) by dehydroalanine we designed the diubiquitin (diUb) activity-based probe UbG76Dha-Ub (OTULIN activity-based probe [ABP]) that couples to the catalytic site of OTULIN and thereby captures OTULIN in its active conformation. The OTULIN ABP displays high selectivity for OTULIN and does not label other M1-cleaving DUBs, including CYLD. The only detectable cross-reactivities were the labeling of USP5 (Isopeptidase T) and an ATP-dependent assembly of polyOTULIN ABP chains via Ub-activating E1 enzymes. Both cross-reactivities were abolished by the removal of the C-terminal Gly in the ABP's proximal Ub, yielding the specific OTULIN probe UbG76Dha-UbΔG76 (OTULIN ABPΔG76). Pull-downs demonstrate that substrate-bound OTULIN associates with the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Thus, we present a highly selective ABP for OTULIN that will facilitate studying the cellular function of this essential DUB.
We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic β cells (Fh1βKO mice) appear normal for 6-8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1α or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1βKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in β cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1βKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D.
HIV-1 traffics through dendritic cells (DCs) en route to establishing a productive infection in T lymphocytes but fails to induce an innate immune response. Within DC endosomes, HIV-1 somehow evades detection by the pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8). Using a phosphoproteomic approach, we identified a robust and diverse signaling cascade triggered by HIV-1 upon entry into human DCs. A secondary siRNA screen of the identified signaling factors revealed several new mediators of HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T cells in DCs, including the dynein motor protein Snapin. Inhibition of Snapin enhanced localization of HIV-1 with TLR8+ early endosomes, triggered a pro-inflammatory response, and inhibited trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. Snapin inhibited TLR8 signaling in the absence of HIV-1 and is a general regulator of endosomal maturation. Thus, we identify a new mechanism of innate immune sensing by TLR8 in DCs, which is exploited by HIV-1 to promote transmission.
Arginine methylation of histones is one mechanism of epigenetic regulation in eukaryotic cells. Methylarginines can also be found in non-histone proteins involved in various different processes in a cell. An enzyme family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases catalyses the addition of methyl groups on arginines of histone and non-histone proteins, resulting in either mono- or dimethylated-arginine residues. The reversibility of histone modifications is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation to respond to changes in environmental factors, signalling events, or metabolic alterations. Prominent histone modifications like lysine acetylation and lysine methylation are reversible. Enzyme family pairs have been identified, with each pair of lysine acetyltransferases/deacetylases and lysine methyltransferases/demethylases operating complementarily to generate or erase lysine modifications. Several analyses also indicate a reversible nature of arginine methylation, but the enzymes facilitating direct removal of methyl moieties from arginine residues in proteins have been discussed controversially. Differing reports have been seen for initially characterized putative candidates, like peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 or Jumonji-domain containing protein 6. Here, we review the most recent cellular, biochemical, and mass spectrometry work on arginine methylation and its reversible nature with a special focus on putative arginine demethylases, including the enzyme superfamily of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases.
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The Registry contains data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultations will be entered. Currently, 83% of accredited medical toxicology fellowship programs in the USA participate. The Registry continues to grow each year, and as of 31 December 2016, a new milestone was reached, with more than 50,000 cases reported since its inception. The objective of this seventh annual report is to summarize the Registry's 2016 data and activity with its additional 8529 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from 1 January to 31 December 2016. Detailed data was collected from these cases and aggregated to provide information which includes the following: demographics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, HIV status), reason for medical toxicology evaluation (intentional pharmaceutical exposure, envenomation, withdrawal from a substance), agent and agent class, clinical signs and symptoms (vital sign abnormalities, organ system dysfunction), treatments and antidotes administered, fatality and life support withdrawal data. Fifty percent of cases involved females, and adults aged 19-65 were the most commonly reported. There were 86 patients (1.0%) with HIV-positive status known. Non-opioid analgesics were the most commonly reported agent class, with acetaminophen the most common agent reported. There were 126 fatalities reported in 2016 (1.5% of cases). Major trends in demographics and exposure characteristics remained similar overall with past years' reports. While treatment interventions were commonly required, fatalities were rare.
The oral cavity is home to unique resident microbial communities whose interactions with host immunity are less frequently studied than those of the intestinal microbiome. We examined the stimulatory capacity and the interactions of two oral bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), on Dendritic Cell (DC) activation, comparing them to the effects of the well-studied intestinal microbe Escherichia coli (E. coli). Unlike F. nucleatum and E. coli, P. gingivalis failed to activate DCs, and in fact silenced DC responses induced by F. nucleatum or E. coli. We identified a variant strain of P. gingivalis (W50) that lacked this immunomodulatory activity. Using biochemical approaches and whole genome sequencing to compare the two substrains, we found a point mutation in the hagA gene. This protein is though to be involved in the alteration of the PorSS/gingipain pathway, which regulates protein secretion into the extracellular environment. A proteomic comparison of the secreted products of the two substrains revealed enzymatic differences corresponding to this phenotype. We found that P. gingivalis secretes gingipain(s) that inactivate several key proinflammatory mediators made by DCs and/or T cells, but spare Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and GM-CSF, which can cause capillary leaks that serve as a source of the heme that P. gingivalis requires for its survival, and GM-CSF, which can cause epithelial-cell growth. Taken together, our results suggest that P. gingivalis has evolved potent mechanisms to modulate its virulence factors and dampen the innate immune response by selectively inactivating most proinflammatory cytokines.
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated complications is steadily increasing. As a resource for studying systemic consequences of chronic insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia, we established a comprehensive biobank of long-term diabetic INSC94Y transgenic pigs, a model of mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), and of wild-type (WT) littermates. METHODS: Female MIDY pigs (n = 4) were maintained with suboptimal insulin treatment for 2 years, together with female WT littermates (n = 5). Plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucagon levels were regularly determined using specific immunoassays. In addition, clinical chemical, targeted metabolomics, and lipidomics analyses were performed. At age 2 years, all pigs were euthanized, necropsied, and a broad spectrum of tissues was taken by systematic uniform random sampling procedures. Total beta cell volume was determined by stereological methods. A pilot proteome analysis of pancreas, liver, and kidney cortex was performed by label free proteomics. RESULTS: MIDY pigs had elevated fasting plasma glucose and fructosamine concentrations, C-peptide levels that decreased with age and were undetectable at 2 years, and an 82% reduced total beta cell volume compared to WT. Plasma glucagon and beta hydroxybutyrate levels of MIDY pigs were chronically elevated, reflecting hallmarks of poorly controlled diabetes in humans. In total, ∼1900 samples of different body fluids (blood, serum, plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and synovial fluid) as well as ∼17,000 samples from ∼50 different tissues and organs were preserved to facilitate a plethora of morphological and molecular analyses. Principal component analyses of plasma targeted metabolomics and lipidomics data and of proteome profiles from pancreas, liver, and kidney cortex clearly separated MIDY and WT samples. CONCLUSIONS: The broad spectrum of well-defined biosamples in the Munich MIDY Pig Biobank that will be available to the scientific community provides a unique resource for systematic studies of organ crosstalk in diabetes in a multi-organ, multi-omics dimension.
Baculoviruses encode a variety of auxiliary proteins that are not essential for viral replication but provide them with a selective advantage in nature. P10 is a 10-kDa auxiliary protein produced in the very late phase of gene transcription by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The P10 protein forms cytoskeleton-like structures in the host cell that associate with microtubules varying from filamentous forms in the cytoplasm to aggregated perinuclear tubules that form a cage-like structure around the nucleus. These P10 structures may have a role in the release of occlusion bodies (OBs) and thus mediate the horizontal transmission of the virus between insect hosts. Here, using mass spectrometric analysis, it is demonstrated that the C terminus of P10 is phosphorylated during virus infection of cells in culture. Analysis of P10 mutants encoded by recombinant baculoviruses in which putative phosphorylation residues were mutated to alanine showed that serine 93 is a site of phosphorylation. Confocal microscopy examination of the serine 93 mutant structures revealed aberrant formation of the perinuclear tubules. Thus, the phosphorylation of serine 93 may induce the aggregation of filaments to form tubules. Together, these data suggest that the phosphorylation of serine 93 affects the structural conformation of P10.IMPORTANCE The baculovirus P10 protein has been researched intensively since it was first observed in 1969, but its role during viral infection remains unclear. It is conserved in the alphabaculoviruses and expressed at high levels during virus infection. Producing large amounts of a protein is wasteful for the virus unless it is advantageous for the survival of its progeny, and therefore, P10 presents an enigma. As P10 polymerizes to form organized cytoskeletal structures that colocalize with host cell microtubules, the structural relationship of the protein with the host cell may present a key to help understand the function and importance of this protein. This study addresses the importance of the structural changes in P10 during infection and how they may be governed by phosphorylation. The P10 structures affected by phosphorylation are closely associated with the viral progeny and thus may potentially be responsible for its dissemination and survival.
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the culprit event which underpins most acute vascular syndromes such as acute myocardial infarction. Novel biomarkers of plaque rupture could improve biological understanding and clinical management of patients presenting with possible acute vascular syndromes but such biomarker(s) remain elusive. Investigation of biomarkers in the context of de novo plaque rupture in humans is confounded by the inability to attribute the plaque rupture as the source of biomarker release, as plaque ruptures are typically associated with prompt down-stream events of myocardial necrosis and systemic inflammation. METHODS: We developed a novel approach to identify potential biomarkers of plaque rupture by integrating plaque imaging, using optical coherence tomography, with both plaque and plasma proteomic analysis in a human model of angioplasty-induced plaque disruption. RESULTS: We compared two pairs of coronary plaque debris, captured by a FilterWire Device, and their corresponding control samples and found matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) to be significantly enriched in plaque. Plaque contents, as defined by optical coherence tomography, affect the systemic changes of MMP9. Disruption of lipid-rich plaque led to prompt elevation of plasma MMP9, whereas disruption of non-lipid-rich plaque resulted in delayed elevation of plasma MMP9. Systemic MMP9 elevation is independent of the associated myocardial necrosis and systemic inflammation (measured by Troponin I and C-reactive protein, respectively). This information guided the selection of a subset of subjects of for further label free proteomics analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We discovered five novel, plaque-enriched proteins (lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Annexin A5, eukaryotic translocation initiation factor, syntaxin 11, cytochrome B5 reductase 3) to be significantly elevated in systemic circulation at 5 min after plaque disruption. CONCLUSION: This novel approach for biomarker discovery in human coronary artery plaque disruption can identify new biomarkers related to human coronary artery plaque composition and disruption.
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb is a master regulator of cellular proliferation, principally through interaction with E2F and regulation of E2F target genes. Here, we describe the H1.2 linker histone as a major pRb interaction partner. We establish that H1.2 and pRb are found in a chromatin-bound complex on diverse E2F target genes. Interrogating the global influence of H1.2 on the genome-wide distribution of pRb indicated that the E2F target genes affected by H1.2 are functionally linked to cell-cycle control, consistent with the ability of H1.2 to hinder cell proliferation and the elevated levels of chromatin-bound H1-pRb complex, which occur in growth-arrested cells. Our results define a network of E2F target genes as susceptible to the regulatory influence of H1.2, where H1.2 augments global association of pRb with chromatin, enhances transcriptional repression by pRb, and facilitates pRb-dependent cell-cycle arrest.
Diabetologia, 60 (6), pp. 1152-1156. | Citations: 5 (Web of Science Lite) | Read more2017. INS-eGFP transgenic pigs: a novel reporter system for studying maturation, growth and vascularisation of neonatal islet-like cell clusters.
Tears of the human supraspinatus tendon are common and often cause painful and debilitating loss of function. Progressive failure of the tendon leading to structural abnormality and tearing is accompanied by numerous cellular and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) changes in the tendon tissue. This proteomics study aimed to compare torn and aged rotator cuff tissue to young and healthy tissue, and provide the first ECM inventory of human supraspinatus tendon generated using label-free quantitative LC-MS/MS. Employing two digestion protocols (trypsin and elastase), we analysed grain-sized tendon supraspinatus biopsies from older patients with torn tendons and from healthy, young controls. Our findings confirm measurable degradation of collagen fibrils and associated proteins in old and torn tendons, suggesting a significant loss of tissue organisation. A particularly marked reduction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) raises the possibility of using changes in levels of this glycoprotein as a marker of abnormal tissue, as previously suggested in horse models. Surprisingly, and despite using an elastase digestion for validation, elastin was not detected, suggesting that it is not highly abundant in human supraspinatus tendon as previously thought. Finally, we identified marked changes to the elastic fibre, fibrillin-rich niche and the pericellular matrix. Further investigation of these regions may yield other potential biomarkers and help to explain detrimental cellular processes associated with tendon ageing and tendinopathy.
Elife, 6 | Citations: 5 (European Pubmed Central) | Read more2017. Correction: PCGF6-PRC1 suppresses premature differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by regulating germ cell-related genes.
The tumor suppressor p53 is widely dysregulated in cancer and represents an attractive target for immunotherapy. Because of its intracellular localization, p53 is inaccessible to classical therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, an increasingly successful class of anticancer drugs. However, peptides derived from intracellular antigens are presented on the cell surface in the context of MHC I and can be bound by T-cell receptors (TCR). Here, we report the development of a novel antibody, T1-116C, that acts as a TCR mimic to recognize an HLA-A*0201-presented wild-type p53 T-cell epitope, p5365-73(RMPEAAPPV). The antibody recognizes a wide range of cancers, does not bind normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and can activate immune effector functions to kill cancer cells in vitroIn vivo, the antibody targets p5365-73 peptide-expressing breast cancer xenografts, significantly inhibiting tumor growth. This represents a promising new agent for future cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2699-711. ©2017 AACR.
The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex mediates DNA repair pathways, including double-strand breaks induced by radiotherapy. Meiotic recombination 11 homolog (MRE11) is downregulated by histone deacetylase inhibition (HDACi), resulting in reduced levels of DNA repair in bladder cancer cells and radiosensitization. In this study, we show that the mechanism of this downregulation is posttranslational and identify a C-terminally truncated MRE11, which is formed after HDAC inhibition as full-length MRE11 is downregulated. Truncated MRE11 was stabilized by proteasome inhibition, exhibited a decreased half-life after treatment with panobinostat, and therefore represents a newly identified intermediate induced and degraded in response to HDAC inhibition. The E3 ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) was upregulated in response to HDAC inhibition and was validated as a new MRE11 binding partner whose upregulation had similar effects to HDAC inhibition. cIAP2 overexpression resulted in downregulation and altered ubiquitination patterns of MRE11 and mediated radiosensitization in response to HDAC inhibition. These results highlight cIAP2 as a player in the DNA damage response as a posttranscriptional regulator of MRE11 and identify cIAP2 as a potential target for biomarker discovery or chemoradiation strategies in bladder cancer. Cancer Res; 77(11); 3027-39. ©2017 AACR.
The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability. We also find a role for PCGF6 in pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryonic development. We further show that a heterodimer of the transcription factors MAX and MGA recruits PCGF6 to target loci. PCGF6 thus links sequence specific target recognition by the MAX/MGA complex to PRC1-dependent transcriptional silencing of germ cell-specific genes in pluripotent stem cells.
Circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) contribute to vascular repair where they are a target for therapy. Since ECFC proliferative potential is increased in cord versus peripheral blood and to define regulatory factors controlling this proliferation, we compared the miRNA profiles of cord blood and peripheral blood ECFC-derived cells. Of the top 25 differentially regulated miRNAs selected, 22 were more highly expressed in peripheral blood ECFC-derived cells. After validating candidate miRNAs by q-RT-PCR, we selected miR-193a-3p for further investigation. The miR-193a-3p mimic reduced cord blood ECFC-derived cell proliferation, migration and vascular tubule formation, while the miR-193a-3p inhibitor significantly enhanced these parameters in peripheral blood ECFC-derived cells. Using in silico miRNA target database analyses combined with proteome arrays and luciferase reporter assays of miR-193a-3p mimic treated cord blood ECFC-derived cells, we identified 2 novel miR-193a-3p targets, the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the hypoxia upregulated-1 (HYOU1) gene products. HMGB1 silencing in cord blood ECFC-derived cells confirmed its role in regulating vascular function. Thus, we show, for the first time, that miR-193a-3p negatively regulates human ECFC vasculo/angiogenesis and propose that antagonising miR-193a-3p in less proliferative and less angiogenic ECFC-derived cells will enhance their vasculo/angiogenic function.
AIMS: To analyse the effectiveness of debridement and implant retention (DAIR) in patients with hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the relationship to patient characteristics. The outcome was evaluated in hips with confirmed PJI and a follow-up of not less than two years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in whom DAIR was performed were identified from our hip arthroplasty register (between 2004 and 2013). Adherence to criteria for DAIR was assessed according to a previously published algorithm. RESULTS: DAIR was performed as part of a curative procedure in 46 hips in 42 patients. The mean age was 73.2 years (44.6 to 87.7), including 20 women and 22 men. In 34 hips in 32 patients (73.9%), PJI was confirmed. In 12 hips, the criteria for PJI were not fulfilled and antibiotics stopped. In 41 (89.1%) of all hips and in 32 (94.1%) of the confirmed PJIs, all criteria for DAIR were fulfilled. In patients with exogenous PJI, DAIR was performed not more than three days after referral. In haematogenous infections, the duration of symptoms did not exceed 21 days. In 28 hips, a single debridement and in six hips two surgical debridements were required. In 28 (87.5%) of 32 patients, the total treatment duration was three months. Failure was noted in three hips (9%). Long-term follow-up results (mean 4.0 years, 1.4 to 10) were available in 30 of 34 (88.2%) confirmed PJIs. The overall successful outcome rate was 91% in 34 hips, and 90% in 30 hips with long-term follow-up results. CONCLUSION: Prompt surgical treatment with DAIR, following strict diagnostic and therapeutic criteria, in patients with suspected periprosthetic joint infection, can lead to high rates of success in eradicating the infection. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:330-6.
The "deep" proteome has been accessible by mass spectrometry for some time. However, the number of proteins identified in cells of the same type has plateaued at ∼8000-10 000 without ID transfer from reference proteomes/data. Moreover, limited sequence coverage hampers the discrimination of protein isoforms when using trypsin as standard protease. Multienzyme approaches appear to improve sequence coverage and subsequent isoform discrimination. Here we expanded proteome and protein sequence coverage in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to an as yet unmatched depth by employing a workflow that addresses current limitations in deep proteome analysis in multiple stages: We used (i) gel-aided sample preparation (GASP) and combined trypsin/elastase digests to increase peptide orthogonality, (ii) concatenated high-pH prefractionation, and (iii) CHarge Ordered Parallel Ion aNalysis (CHOPIN), available on an Orbitrap Fusion (Lumos) mass spectrometer, to achieve 57% median protein sequence coverage in 13 728 protein groups (8949 Unigene IDs) in a single cell line. CHOPIN allows the use of both detectors in the Orbitrap on predefined precursor types that optimizes parallel ion processing, leading to the identification of a total of 179 549 unique peptides covering the deep proteome in unprecedented detail.
Pathological alterations in cell functions are frequently accompanied by metabolic reprogramming including modifications in amino acid metabolism. Amino acid detection is thus integral to the diagnosis of many hereditary metabolic diseases. The development of malignant diseases as metabolic disorders comes along with a complex dysregulation of genetic and epigenetic factors affecting metabolic enzymes. Cancer cells might transiently or permanently become auxotrophic for non-essential or semi-essential amino acids such as asparagine or arginine. Also, transformed cells are often more susceptible to local shortage of essential amino acids such as methionine than normal tissues. This offers new points of attacking unique metabolic features in cancer cells. To better understand these processes, highly sensitive methods for amino acid detection and quantification are required. Our review summarizes the main methodologies for amino acid detection with a particular focus on applications in biomedicine and cancer, provides a historical overview of the methodological pre-requisites in amino acid analytics. We compare classical and modern approaches such as the combination of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/LC-MS). The latter is increasingly applied in clinical routine. We therefore illustrate an LC-MS workflow for analyzing arginine and methionine as well as their precursors and analogs in biological material. Pitfalls during protocol development are discussed, but LC-MS emerges as a reliable and sensitive tool for the detection of amino acids in biological matrices. Quantification is challenging, but of particular interest in cancer research as targeting arginine and methionine turnover in cancer cells represent novel treatment strategies.
The redox co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by endothelial NOS (eNOS) and is an important redox-dependent signalling molecule in the endothelium. Loss of endothelial BH4 is observed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) states and results in decreased NO and increased superoxide (O2-) generation via eNOS uncoupling. Genetic mouse models of augmented endothelial BH4 synthesis have shown proof of concept that endothelial BH4 can alter CVD pathogenesis. However, clinical trials of BH4 therapy in vascular disease have been limited by systemic oxidation, highlighting the need to explore the wider roles of BH4 to find novel therapeutic targets. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of BH4 deficiency on mitochondrial function and bioenergetics using targeted knockdown of the BH4 synthetic enzyme, GTP Cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH). Knockdown of GTPCH by >90% led to marked loss of cellular BH4 and a striking induction of O2- generation in the mitochondria of murine endothelial cells. This effect was likewise observed in BH4-depleted fibroblasts devoid of NOS, indicating a novel NOS-independent role for BH4 in mitochondrial redox signalling. Moreover, this BH4-dependent, mitochondria-derived ROS further oxidised mitochondrial BH4, concomitant with changes in the thioredoxin and glutathione antioxidant pathways. These changes were accompanied by a modest increase in mitochondrial size, mildly attenuated basal respiratory function, and marked changes in the mitochondrial proteome and cellular metabolome, including the accumulation of the TCA intermediate succinate. Taken together, these data reveal a novel NOS-independent role for BH4 in the regulation of mitochondrial redox signalling and bioenergetic metabolism.
Two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) is utilized to an increasing extent in biomedical metabolomics. Here, we established and adapted metabolite extraction and derivatization protocols for cell/tissue biopsy, serum and urine samples according to their individual properties. GCxGC-MS analysis revealed detection of ~600 molecular features from which 165 were characterized representing different classes such as amino acids, fatty acids, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleotides and small polar components of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle using electron impact (EI) spectrum matching and validation using external standard compounds. Advantages of two-dimensional gas chromatography based resolution were demonstrated by optimizing gradient length and separation through modulation between the first and second column, leading to a marked increase in metabolite identification due to improved separation as exemplified for lactate versus pyruvate, talopyranose versus methyl palmitate and inosine versus docosahexaenoic acid. Our results demonstrate that GCxGC-MS represents a robust metabolomics platform for discovery and targeted studies that can be used with samples derived from the clinic.
Posttranslational modification of proteins with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates protein function in the context of cell cycle and DNA repair. The occurrence of SUMOylation is less frequent as compared to protein modification with ubiquitin, and appears to be controlled by a smaller pool of conjugating and deconjugating enzymes. Mass spectrometry has been instrumental in defining specific as well as proteome-wide views of SUMO-dependent biological processes, and several methodological approaches have been developed in the recent past. Here, we provide an overview of the latest experimental approaches to the study of SUMOylation, and also describe hands-on protocols using a combination of biochemistry and mass spectrometry-based technologies to profile proteins that are SUMOylated in human cells.
Lysine acetylation is becoming increasingly recognized as a general biological principle in cellular homeostasis, and is subject to abnormal control in different human pathologies. Here, we describe a global effect on amyloid-like protein aggregation in human cells that results from aberrant lysine acetylation. Bromodomain reader proteins are involved in the aggregation process and, using chemical biology and gene silencing, we establish that p300/CBP bromodomains are necessary for aggregation to occur. Moreover, protein aggregation disturbs proteostasis by impairing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and protein translation, resulting in decreased cell viability. p300/CBP bromodomain inhibitors impede aggregation, which coincides with enhanced UPS function and increased cell viability. Aggregation of a pathologically relevant form of huntingtin protein is similarly affected by p300/CBP inhibition. Our results have implications for understanding the molecular basis of protein aggregation, and highlight the possibility of treating amyloid-like pathologies and related protein folding diseases with bromodomain inhibitor-based strategies.
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