Structure and dimerization of a soluble form of B7-1.
Ikemizu S., Gilbert RJ., Fennelly JA., Collins AV., Harlos K., Jones EY., Stuart DI., Davis SJ.
B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are glycoproteins expressed on antigen-presenting cells. The binding of these molecules to the T cell homodimers CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152) generates costimulatory and inhibitory signals in T cells, respectively. The crystal structure of the extracellular region of B7-1 (sB7-1), solved to 3 A resolution, consists of a novel combination of two Ig-like domains, one characteristic of adhesion molecules and the other previously seen only in antigen receptors. In the crystal lattice, sB7-1 unexpectedly forms parallel, 2-fold rotationally symmetric homodimers. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that sB7-1 also dimerizes in solution. The structural data suggest a mechanism whereby the avidity-enhanced binding of B7-1 and CTLA-4 homodimers, along with the relatively high affinity of these interactions, favors the formation of very stable inhibitory signaling complexes.