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Phosphorylation is one of the major mechanisms by which the activities of protein factors can be regulated. Such regulation impacts multiple key-functions of mammalian cells, including signal transduction, nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, macromolecular complexes assembly, DNA binding and regulation of enzymatic activities to name a few. To ensure their capacities to replicate and propagate efficiently in their hosts, viruses may rely on the phosphorylation of viral proteins to assist diverse steps of their life cycle. It has been known for several decades that particles from diverse virus families contain some protein kinase activity. While large DNA viruses generally encode for viral kinases, RNA viruses and more precisely retroviruses have acquired the capacity to hijack the signaling machinery of the host cell and to embark cellular kinases when budding. Such property was demonstrated for HIV-1 more than a decade ago. This review summarizes the knowledge acquired in the field of HIV-1-associated kinases and discusses their possible function in the retroviral life cycle.

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Animals, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Protein Kinases, Virion, Virus Assembly